Cellular: Modem Shell

The Modem Shell (MoSh) sample application enables you to test various device connectivity features, including data throughput.

Requirements

The sample supports the following development kits:

Hardware platforms

PCA

Board name

Build target

Shields

Thingy:91

PCA20035

thingy91_nrf9160

thingy91_nrf9160_ns

nRF9161 DK

PCA10153

nrf9161dk_nrf9161

nrf9161dk_nrf9161_ns

nrf7002ek nrf7002ek_nrf7000 nrf7002ek_nrf7001

nRF9160 DK

PCA10090

nrf9160dk_nrf9160

nrf9160dk_nrf9160_ns

nrf7002ek nrf7002ek_nrf7000 nrf7002ek_nrf7001

nRF9151 DK

PCA10171

nrf9151dk_nrf9151

nrf9151dk_nrf9151_ns

nrf7002ek nrf7002ek_nrf7000 nrf7002ek_nrf7001

When built for an _ns build target, the sample is configured to compile and run as a non-secure application with Cortex-M Security Extensions enabled. Therefore, it automatically includes Trusted Firmware-M that prepares the required peripherals and secure services to be available for the application.

External flash

To use the external flash memory on the nRF9160 DK v0.14.0 or later versions, the board controller firmware must be of version v2.0.1. This is the factory firmware version. If you need to program the board controller firmware again, complete the following steps:

  1. Download the nRF9160 DK board controller firmware from the nRF9160 DK downloads page.

  2. Make sure the PROG/DEBUG SW10 switch on the nRF9160 DK is set to nRF52.

  3. Program the board controller firmware (nrf9160_dk_board_controller_fw_2.0.1.hex) using the Programmer app in nRF Connect for Desktop.

Note

The board controller firmware version must be v2.0.1 or higher, which enables the pin routing to external flash.

See Board controller for more details.

Overview

MoSh enables testing of different connectivity features such as LTE link handling, TCP/IP connections, data throughput (iperf3 and curl), SMS, GNSS, FOTA updates and PPP. Hence, this sample is not only code sample, which it also is in many aspects, but also a test application for aforementioned features. MoSh uses the LTE link control driver to establish an LTE connection and initializes the Zephyr shell to provide a shell command-line interface for users.

The subsections list the MoSh features and show shell command examples for their usage.

Note

To learn more about using a MoSh command, run the command without any parameters.


AT commands

MoSh command: at

You can use the AT command module to send AT commands to the modem, individually or in a separate plain AT command mode where also pipelining of AT commands is supported.

Note

Using AT commands that read information from the modem is safe together with MoSh commands. However, it is not recommended to write any values with AT commands and use MoSh commands among them. If you mix AT commands and MoSh commands, the internal state of MoSh might get out of synchronization and result in unexpected behavior.

Note

When using at command, any quotation marks ("), apostrophes (') and backslashes (\) within the AT command syntax must be escaped with a backslash (\). The percentage sign (%) is often needed and can be written as is.

Examples

  • Send AT command to query network status:

    at at+cereg?
    
  • Send AT command to query neighbor cells:

    at at%NBRGRSRP
    
  • Escape quotation marks in a command targeting the network search to a specific operator:

    at AT+COPS=1,2,\"24407\"
    
  • Enable AT command events:

    at events_enable
    
  • Disable AT command events:

    at events_disable
    
  • Enable autostarting of AT command mode in next bootup:

    at at_cmd_mode enable_autostart
    
  • Start AT command mode:

    at at_cmd_mode start
    MoSh AT command mode started, press ctrl-x ctrl-q to escape
    MoSh specific AT commands:
      ICMP Ping: AT+NPING=<addr>[,<payload_length>,<timeout_msecs>,<count>[,<interval_msecs>[,<cid>]]]
    Other custom functionalities:
      AT command pipelining, for example:
        at+cgmr|at+cfun?|at+nping="example.com"
    ===========================================================
    at
    OK
    

Ping

MoSh command: ping

Ping is a tool for testing the reachability of a host on an IP network.

Examples

  • Ping a URL:

    ping -d ping.server.url
    
  • Ping an IPv6 address with length of 500 bytes and 1 s intervals (the used PDN needs to support IPv6):

    ping -d 1a2b:1a2b:1a2b:1a2b::1 -6 -l 500 -i 1000
    

Iperf3

MoSh command: iperf

Iperf3 is a tool for measuring data transfer performance both in uplink and downlink direction.

Note

Some features, for example file operations and TCP option tuning, are not supported.

Examples

  • Download data over TCP for 30 seconds with a buffer size of 3540 bytes and use detailed output:

    iperf3 --client 111.222.111.222 --port 10000 -l 3540 --time 30 -V -R
    
  • Upload data over TCP for 30 seconds with the payload size of 708 bytes using a PDN with ID #2 (use the link status command to see the active PDNs and their IDs):

    iperf3 -c 111.222.111.222 -p 10000 -l 708 -t 30 --pdn_id 2
    
  • Upload data over UDP for 60 seconds with the payload size of 1240 bytes and use the detailed output as well as debug output:

    iperf3 --client 111.222.111.222 --port 10000 -l 1240 --time 60 -u -V -d
    
  • Download data over TCP/IPv6 for 10 seconds (the used PDN needs to support IPv6, use the link status command to see PDP type support for active contexts):

    iperf3 --client 1a2b:1a2b:1a2b:1a2b::1 --port 20000 --time 10 -R -6
    

Curl

MoSh command: curl

Curl is a command-line tool for transferring data specified with URL syntax. It is a part of MoSh and enables you to test the data download with a “standard” tool.

Note

File operations are not supported.

Examples

  • HTTP download:

    curl http://curl.server.url/small.txt
    curl http://curl.server.url/bigger_file.zip --output /dev/null
    
  • HTTP upload for given data:

    curl http://curl.server.url/data -d "foo=bar"
    
  • HTTP upload for given number of bytes sent in a POST body:

    curl http://curl.server.url/data -d #500000
    
  • HTTP upload for given number of bytes sent in a POST body using a PDN with ID #1 (use the link status command to see active PDNs and their IDs):

    curl http://curl.server.url/data -d #500000 --pdn_id 1
    

Socket tool

MoSh command: sock

You can use the socket tool to:

  • Create and manage socket connections.

  • Send and receive data.

Examples

  • Open and connect to an IP address and port (IPv4 TCP socket):

    sock connect -a 111.222.111.222 -p 20000
    
  • Open and connect to hostname and port (IPv4 TCP socket):

    sock connect -a google.com -p 20000
    
  • Open and connect an IPv6 TCP socket and bind to a port:

    sock connect -a 1a2b:1a2b:1a2b:1a2b::1 -p 20000 -f inet6 -t stream -b 40000
    
  • Open an IPv6 UDP socket:

    sock connect -a 1a2b:1a2b:1a2b:1a2b::1 -p 20000 -f inet6 -t dgram
    
  • Open an IPv6 DTLS socket:

    sock connect -a 1a2b:1a2b:1a2b:1a2b::1 -p 20000 -f inet6 -t dgram -S -T 123
    

    Note

    The certificate must have been written beforehand to security tag 123. See the Credential storage management %CMNG section in the nRF9160 AT Commands Reference Guide or the same section in the nRF91x1 AT Commands Reference Guide, depending on the SiP you are using.

  • Open a raw socket:

    sock connect -f packet -t raw
    
  • Open a socket to a non-default PDP context:

    link connect -a nondefault.context.com
    sock connect -f packet -t raw -I 1
    
  • Send a string through the socket:

    sock send -i 0 -d testing
    
  • Send 100 kB of data and show throughput statistics:

    sock send -i 0 -l 100000
    
  • Send data periodically with 10 s interval:

    sock send -i 0 -e 10 -d test_periodic
    
  • Calculate the receive throughput:

    <do whatever is needed to make device receive data after some time>
    sock recv -i 0 -r -l 1000000
    sock recv -i 0
    sock recv -i 0
    
  • Close a socket:

    sock close -i 0
    
  • Use RAI settings:

    link funmode -4
    link rai -e
    link funmode -1
    sock connect -a 111.222.111.222 -p 20000
    sock rai -i 0 --rai_last
    sock send -i 0 -d testing
    

    When both 3GPP Release 13 Control Plane (CP) Release Assistance Indication (RAI) and 3GPP Release 14 Access Stratum (AS) RAI are enabled, which can be the case for NB-IoT, both are signalled. Which RAI takes effect depends on the network configuration and prioritization.

  • List open sockets:

    sock list
    

SMS tool

MoSh command: sms

You can use the SMS tool for sending and receiving SMS messages.

Examples

  • Register the SMS service so that messages can be received if SIM subscription supports it:

    sms reg
    
  • Send an SMS message (registration is done automatically if not already done):

    sms send -n +987654321 -m testing
    

Location tool

MoSh command: location

You can use the Location tool for retrieving device’s location with different methods. See Location library for information on the configuration of different location methods and services. Some default configurations are available to facilitate trials.

This sample is using cloud service for positioning through the Location library by default. However, an application can also handle the cloud communication for the location services by itself. To enable cloud communication, use the CONFIG_LOCATION_SERVICE_EXTERNAL Kconfig option and a separate configuration (overlay-cloud_mqtt.conf) to enable nRF Cloud service over MQTT for retrieving location data. Use the cloud command to establish the MQTT connection before location commands.

Examples

  • Retrieve location with default configuration:

    location get
    
  • Retrieve location with Wi-Fi positioning. You need to have a Wi-Fi-enabled device and build the sample with Wi-Fi support. If the location is not found, use cellular positioning:

    location get --method wifi --wifi_timeout 60000 --method cellular --cellular_service nrf
    
  • Retrieve location periodically every hour with GNSS and if not found, use cellular positioning:

    location get --interval 3600 --method gnss --gnss_timeout 300000 --method cellular
    
  • Cancel ongoing location request or periodic location request:

    location cancel
    

Modem traces

MoSh command: modem_trace

Enable the modem_trace command using the CONFIG_NRF_MODEM_LIB_SHELL_TRACE and CONFIG_NRF_MODEM_LIB_TRACE Kconfig options.

You can use the modem trace commands to control the trace functionality in the modem. See Modem trace module for more information on how to configure modem tracing and the built-in trace backends available. See Modem trace shell command for details about the shell command.

To enable modem traces with the flash backend, build with the nrf91-modem-trace-ext-flash snippet for an nRF91 Series DK that has external flash. For more information on snippets, see Using Snippets.

GNSS

MoSh command: gnss

GNSS provides commands for searching the location of the device.

Examples

  • Start GNSS tracking and stop it:

    gnss start
    gnss stop
    
  • Disable LTE, enable all GNSS output and start continuous tracking with power saving enabled:

    link funmode --lteoff
    gnss output 2 1 1
    gnss mode cont
    gnss config powersave perf
    gnss start
    
  • Enable LTE PSM, only NMEA output, automatic A-GNSS data fetching and start periodic fixes with 5 minute interval and 120 second timeout:

    link psm -e
    gnss output 0 1 0
    gnss agnss automatic enable
    gnss mode periodic 300 120
    gnss start
    

FOTA

MoSh command: fota

You can use FOTA to perform software updates over-the-air for both modem and application side. However, to use this feature, you need to know which updates are available in the servers. This feature is intended to be used only by selected users and customers to whom available image names are communicated separately.

Examples

  • Perform a FOTA update:

    fota download eu fw_update_package_filename.hex
    

PPP

MoSh command: ppp

You can use the PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) to enable dial-up access to the Internet. The MoSh command is simple but you need to have a normal dial-up setup in your PC to be able to use the development kit’s PPP interface.

Note

On Windows, dial-up connection is not functional when using SEGGER virtual UART ports. PPP has been used successfully with FTDI UART port though. Refer to nRF9160 Hardware Verification Guidelines - UART interface.

PPP has been successfully used running Ubuntu Linux in a virtualization environment hosted by Windows. In the hosted virtual Linux environment, using PPP is possible also with plain SEGGER UART ports.

Examples

  • PPP network interface is brought up/down automatically when LTE connection is up/down. Set the PPP network interface up manually:

    ppp up
    
  • Set the PPP network interface down manually:

    ppp down
    
  • Set the custom baudrate configuration for PPP UART (default: 115200):

    ppp uartconf --baudrate 921600
    
  • Set the rts_cts hardware flow control configuration for PPP UART (default: none):

    ppp uartconf --flowctrl rts_cts
    

REST client

MoSh command: rest

You can use the REST client for sending simple REST requests and receiving responses to them.

Examples

  • Sending a HEAD request with custom dummy headers:

    rest -d example.com -l 1024 -m head -H "X-foo1: bar1\x0D\x0A" -H "X-foo2: bar2\x0D\x0A"
    

Running stored commands after startup

MoSh command: startup_cmd

You can store up to three MoSh commands to run on start/bootup. By default, commands are run after the default PDN context is activated, but can be set to run N seconds after bootup.

Examples

  • Starting periodic location acquiring after LTE has been connected with both cellular and GNSS, including sending the location to nRF Cloud:

    startup_cmd --mem1 "location get --mode all --method cellular --method gnss --gnss_cloud_pvt --interval 15"
    

Running commands in different threads and pipelining commands

MoSh command: th

You can run iperf3 and ping in separate threads either in the background or in the foreground. Subcommand pipeline allows running any commands sequentially in the foreground.

Examples

  • Start iperf test in the background. Meanwhile, start ping in the foreground. Print the output buffer of iperf thread once done:

    th startbg iperf3 --client 111.222.111.222 --port 10000 -l 3540 --time 30 -V -R
    th startfg ping -d 8.8.8.8
    th results 1
    
  • Establish MQTT connection to nRF Cloud, wait 10 seconds for the connection establishment, and request current location:

    th pipeline "cloud connect" "sleep 10" "location get"
    

Sleep

MoSh command: sleep

When pipelining commands using th pipeline, you can use the sleep command to pause the execution for a given period to allow previous command to return before executing next one. See Running commands in different threads and pipelining commands for usage.

Cloud

MoSh command: cloud

nRF Cloud is a platform for providing, among other things, various location services. Modem Shell enables you to establish an MQTT connection to nRF Cloud using the nRF Cloud library. Currently, the cloud command is useful mostly when using the location services and MQTT is the desired transport protocol. However, you can use any nRF Cloud services once the MQTT connection is established.

Examples

  • Establish the connection to nRF Cloud, request the cell-based location of the device, and disconnect when ready:

    cloud connect
    location get --method cellular
    cloud disconnect
    

Remote control using nRF Cloud

Once you have established an MQTT connection to nRF Cloud using the cloud command, you can use the Terminal window in the nRF Cloud portal to execute MoSh commands to the device. This feature enables full remote control of the MoSh application running on a device that is connected to cloud. MoSh output, such as responses to commands and other notifications can be echoed to the messages endpoint and the Terminal window of the nRF Cloud portal. Use the print cloud command to enable this behavior. The data format of the input data in the Terminal window must be JSON.

Examples

  • Establish the connection to nRF Cloud:

    cloud connect
    
  • To request the device location, enter the following command in the Terminal window of the nRF Cloud portal:

    {"appId":"MODEM_SHELL", "data":"location get --method cellular"}
    

    The device location appears in the Location window.

  • An AT command is sent to the modem:

    {"appId":"MODEM_SHELL", "data":"at AT+COPS=1,2,\\\"24412\\\""}
    

    Note the syntax for escaping the quotation marks.


UART

MoSh command: uart

Disable UARTs for power measurement purposes or change shell UART baudrate.

  • Disable UARTs for 30 seconds:

    uart disable 30
    
  • Disable UARTs whenever modem is in sleep state:

    uart during_sleep disable
    
  • Change shell UART baudrate to 921600:

    uart baudrate 921600
    

Heap usage statistics

MoSh command: heap

You can use the command to print kernel and system heap usage statistics.

mosh:~$ heap
kernel heap statistics:
free:             7804
allocated:         272
max. allocated:   1056

system heap statistics:
max. size:       81400
size:              248
free:              160
allocated:          88

GPIO pin pulse counter

MoSh command: gpio_count

You can use the command to count pulses on a given GPIO pin. A rising edge of the signal is counted as a pulse. Pulse counting can be enabled only for a single pin at a time. When pulse counting is enabled, LED 2 on the nRF91 Series DKs shows the state of the pin input.

Note

The gpio_count enable command configures the GPIO pin as input and enables pull down.

mosh:~$ gpio_count get
Number of pulses: 0
mosh:~$ gpio_count enable 10
mosh:~$ gpio_count get
Number of pulses: 42
mosh:~$ gpio_count disable
mosh:~$ gpio_count get
Number of pulses: 42

Configuration

See Configuring and building an application for information about how to permanently or temporarily change the configuration.

Configuration options

Check and configure the following configuration options for the sample:

CONFIG_MOSH_PING

Enable ping feature in modem shell.

CONFIG_MOSH_IPERF3

Enable iperf3 feature in modem shell.

CONFIG_MOSH_CURL

Enable curl feature in modem shell.

CONFIG_MOSH_SOCK

Enable socket tool feature in modem shell.

CONFIG_MOSH_SMS

Enable SMS feature in modem shell

CONFIG_MOSH_LOCATION

Enable Location tool in modem shell.

CONFIG_MOSH_GNSS

Enable GNSS feature in modem shell

CONFIG_MOSH_FOTA

Enable FOTA feature in modem shell

CONFIG_MOSH_PPP

Enable PPP feature in modem shell

CONFIG_MOSH_REST

Enable REST client feature in modem shell.

CONFIG_MOSH_CLOUD_REST

Enable nRF Cloud REST feature in modem shell.

CONFIG_MOSH_CLOUD_MQTT

Enable nRF Cloud MQTT connection feature in modem shell.

CONFIG_MOSH_AT_CMD_MODE

Enable AT command mode feature in modem shell.

CONFIG_MOSH_GPIO_COUNT

Enable GPIO pin pulse counter feature in modem shell.

Note

You may not be able to use all features at the same time due to memory restrictions. To see which features are enabled simultaneously, check the configuration files and overlays.

Additional configuration

Check and configure the following library option that is used by the sample:

Sending traces over UART on an nRF91 Series DK

To send modem traces over UART on an nRF91 Series DK, configuration must be added for the UART device in the devicetree and Kconfig. This is done by adding the modem trace UART snippet when building and programming.

Use the Cellular Monitor app for capturing and analyzing modem traces.

TF-M logging must use the same UART as the application. For more details, see shared TF-M logging.

Building and running

This sample can be found under samples/cellular/modem_shell in the nRF Connect SDK folder structure.

When built as firmware image for the _ns build target, the sample has Cortex-M Security Extensions (CMSE) enabled and separates the firmware between Non-Secure Processing Environment (NSPE) and Secure Processing Environment (SPE). Because of this, it automatically includes the Trusted Firmware-M (TF-M). To read more about CMSE, see Processing environments.

To build the sample with Visual Studio Code, follow the steps listed on the How to build an application page in the nRF Connect for VS Code extension documentation. See Configuring and building an application for other building scenarios, Programming an application for programming steps, and Testing and optimization for general information about testing and debugging in the nRF Connect SDK.

See Providing CMake options for instructions on how to provide CMake options, for example to use a configuration overlay.

DK buttons

The buttons have the following functions:

Button 1:

Raises a kill or abort signal. A long press of the button will kill or abort all supported running commands. You can abort commands iperf3 (also with th), curl, ping and sock send.

Button 2:

Enables or disables the UARTs for power consumption measurements. Toggles between UARTs enabled and disabled.

LED indications

The LEDs have the following functions:

LED 1 (nRF91 Series DKs)/Purple LED (Thingy:91):

Lit for five seconds when the current location has been successfully retrieved by using the location get command.

LED 2 (nRF91 Series DKs):

Indicates the state of the GPIO pin when pulse counting has been enabled using the gpio_count enable command.

LED 3 (nRF91 Series DKs)/Blue LED (Thingy:91):

Indicates the LTE registration status.

Power measurements

You can perform power measurements using the Power Profiler Kit II (PPK2). See the documentation for instructions on how to setup the DK for power measurements. The documentation shows, for example, how to connect the wires for both source meter and ampere meter modes. The same instructions are valid also when using a different meter.

To achieve satisfactory power measurement results, it is often desirable to disable UART interfaces unless their contribution to overall power consumption is of interest. In MoSh, perform one of the following actions:

  • Use MoSh command uart to disable UARTs as in UART

  • Press Button 2 in DK to enable or disable UARTs as instructed in DK buttons

For more information about application power optimizations, refer to Power optimization.

Testing

After programming the application and all prerequisites to your development kit, test it by performing the following steps:

  1. Connect the kit to the computer using a USB cable. The kit is assigned a COM port (Windows) or ttyACM device (Linux), which is visible in the Device Manager.

  2. Open a serial port connection to the kit using a terminal emulator that supports VT100/ANSI escape characters (for example, nRF Connect Serial Terminal). See Testing and optimization for the required settings and steps.

  3. Reset the development kit.

  4. Observe in the terminal window that the application starts. This is indicated by output similar to the following (there is also a lot of additional information about the LTE connection):

    *** Booting Zephyr OS build v2.4.99-ncs1-3525-g4d068de3f50f  ***
    
    MOSH version:       v1.5.0-649-g7e657c2fab02
    MOSH build id:      152
    MOSH build variant: normal
    
    Initializing modemlib...
    
    Initialized modemlib
    Network registration status: searching
    Network registration status: Connected - home network
    mosh:~$
    
  5. Type any of the commands listed in the Overview section to the terminal. When you type only the command, the terminal shows the usage, for example sock.

Getting nRF91 Series DK out-of-the-box and to nRF Cloud

To program the certificates and connect to nRF Cloud, complete the following steps:

  1. Download nRF Connect for Desktop.

  2. Update the modem firmware on the on-board modem of the nRF91 Series DK to the latest version as instructed in Updating the modem firmware.

  3. Build and program the MoSh to the nRF91 Series DK using the default MoSh configuration (with REST as the transport):

west build -p -b build_target -d build
west flash -d build

Replace the build_target with the build target of the nRF91 Series device you are using (see the Requirements section).

  1. Get certificates from nRF Cloud as explained in the documentation for the nRF91x1 DK or the nRF9160 DK, depending on the DK you are using.

  2. In the MoSH terminal, power off the modem and start the AT command mode:

    mosh:~$ link funmode -0
    mosh:~$ at at_cmd_mode start
    
  3. Disconnect the MoSh terminal.

  4. Connect and use Cellular Monitor to store the certificates to the modem (default nRF Cloud security tag).

    See Managing credentials in the Cellular Monitor user guide for instructions.

  5. Reconnect the MoSh terminal and press ctrl-x and ctrl-q to exit the AT command mode.

  6. Set the modem to normal mode to activate LTE:

    mosh:~$ link funmode -1
    

    Observe that LTE is getting connected.

  7. Perform just-in-time provisioning (JITP) with nRF Cloud through REST:

    mosh:~$ cloud_rest jitp
    

    You only need to do this once for each device.

  8. Follow the instructions for JITP printed in the MoSh terminal.

  9. Complete the user association:

    1. Open the nRF Cloud portal.

    2. Click the large plus sign in the upper left corner.

    3. Enter the device ID from MoSh in the Device ID field.

    When the device has been added, the message Device added to account. Waiting for it to connect… appears. When the message disappears, click Devices on the left side menu. Your MoSh device is now visible in the list.

  10. Send MoSh device information to nRF Cloud:

    mosh:~$ cloud_rest shadow_update
    

    It might take a while for the data to appear in the nRF Cloud UI.

  11. Use the location command to verify that the REST transport to nRF Cloud is working.

    mosh:~$ location get --method cellular
    
  12. As a success response, the location is printed in the MoSh terminal.

  13. Open the entry for your device in the Devices view.

  14. Observe that location and device information are shown in the device page.

nRF91 Series DK with nRF7002 EK Wi-Fi support

To build the MoSh sample for an nRF91 Series DK with nRF7002 EK Wi-Fi support, use the -DSHIELD=nrf7002ek and -DEXTRA_CONF_FILE=overlay-nrf7002ek-wifi-scan-only.conf options. For example:

west build -p -b build_target -- -DSHIELD=nrf7002ek -DEXTRA_CONF_FILE=overlay-nrf7002ek-wifi-scan-only.conf

Replace the build_target with the build target of the nRF91 Series device you are using (see the Requirements section).

See Providing CMake options for more instructions on how to add these options.

PPP support

To build the MoSh sample with PPP/dial up support, use the -DDTC_OVERLAY_FILE=ppp.overlay and -DEXTRA_CONF_FILE=overlay-ppp.conf options. For example:

west build -p -b build_target -- -DDTC_OVERLAY_FILE=ppp.overlay -DEXTRA_CONF_FILE=overlay-ppp.conf

Replace the build_target with the build target of the nRF91 Series device you are using (see the Requirements section).

After programming the development kit, test it in the Linux environment by performing the following steps:

  1. Connect the development kit to the computer using a USB cable. The development kit is assigned a ttyACM device (Linux).

  2. Open a serial connection to the development kit (/dev/ttyACM2) with a terminal that supports VT100/ANSI escape characters (for example, nRF Connect Serial Terminal). See Testing and optimization for the required settings and steps.

  3. Reset the development kit.

  4. Observe in the terminal window that the MoSh starts with the PPP support. This is indicated by output similar to the following (there is also a lot of additional information about the LTE connection):

    Network registration status: searching
    Network registration status: Connected - home network
    Default PDN is active: starting PPP automatically
    PPP: started
    mosh:~$
    

    Higher baudrates than the default 115200 result in better performance with the usual use cases for PPP/dial up. Set the nRF91 Series DK side UART for PPP with a MoSh command, for example ppp uartconf -b 921600. You also need to set the corresponding UART accordingly from PC side (in this example, within the pppd command).

  5. Enter command ppp uartconf that results in the following UART configuration:

    mosh:~$ ppp uartconf -r
    PPP uart configuration:
      baudrate:     921600
      flow control: RTS_CTS
      parity:       none
      data bits:    bits8
      stop bits:    bits1
    mosh:~$
    
  6. In a Linux terminal, enter the following command to start the PPP connection:

    $ sudo pppd -detach /dev/ttyACM0 921600 noauth crtscts noccp novj nodeflate nobsdcomp local debug +ipv6 ipv6cp-use-ipaddr usepeerdns noipdefault defaultroute ipv6cp-restart 5 ipcp-restart 5 lcp-echo-interval 0
    
  7. In a MoSh terminal, observe that the PPP connection is created:

    Dial up (IPv6) connection up
    Dial up (IPv4) connection up
    mosh:~$
    
  8. Now, you are ready to browse Internet in Linux by using the MoSh PPP dial-up over LTE connection.

Application FOTA support

To build the MoSh sample with application FOTA support, use the -DEXTRA_CONF_FILE=overlay-app_fota.conf option. For example:

west build -p -b build_target -d build -- -DEXTRA_CONF_FILE=overlay-app_fota.conf

Replace the build_target with the build target of the nRF91 Series device you are using (see the Requirements section).

nRF91 Series DK with full modem FOTA support

To build the MoSh sample for an nRF91 Series DK with full modem FOTA support, use the devicetree overlay for external flash corresponding to your device and the -DEXTRA_CONF_FILE=overlay-modem_fota_full.conf option. The following is an example for the nRF9161 DK:

west build -p -b nrf9161dk_nrf9161_ns -d build -- -DEXTRA_CONF_FILE=overlay-modem_fota_full.conf -DDTC_OVERLAY_FILE=nrf9161dk_ext_flash.overlay

LwM2M carrier library support

To build the MoSh sample with LwM2M carrier library support, use the -DEXTRA_CONF_FILE=overlay-carrier.conf option. For example:

west build -p -b build_target -d build -- -DEXTRA_CONF_FILE=overlay-carrier.conf

Replace the build_target with the build target of the nRF91 Series device you are using (see the Requirements section).

P-GPS support

To build the MoSh sample with P-GPS support, use the -DEXTRA_CONF_FILE=overlay-pgps.conf option. For example:

west build -p -b build_target -d build -- -DEXTRA_CONF_FILE=overlay-pgps.conf

Replace the build_target with the build target of the nRF91 Series device you are using (see the Requirements section).

Cloud over MQTT

To build the MoSh sample with cloud connectivity over MQTT, use the -DEXTRA_CONF_FILE=overlay-cloud_mqtt.conf option. For example:

west build -p -b build_target -d build -- -DEXTRA_CONF_FILE=overlay-cloud_mqtt.conf

Replace the build_target with the build target of the nRF91 Series device you are using (see the Requirements section).

Cloud over CoAP

To build the MoSh sample with cloud connectivity over CoAP, use the -DEXTRA_CONF_FILE=overlay-cloud_coap.conf option. For example:

west build -p -b build_target -d build -- -DEXTRA_CONF_FILE=overlay-cloud_coap.conf

Replace the build_target with the build target of the nRF91 Series device you are using (see the Requirements section).

Location service handled in application

This sample is using cloud service for positioning through the Location library by default. To build the sample with location cloud services handled in the MoSh, use the -DEXTRA_CONF_FILE="overlay-cloud_mqtt.conf" and -DCONFIG_LOCATION_SERVICE_EXTERNAL=y options. For example:

west build -p -b build_target -d build -- -DEXTRA_CONF_FILE=overlay-cloud_mqtt.conf -DCONFIG_LOCATION_SERVICE_EXTERNAL=y

Replace the build_target with the build target of the nRF91 Series device you are using (see the Requirements section).

To add P-GPS on top of that, use the -DEXTRA_CONF_FILE="overlay-cloud_mqtt.conf;overlay-pgps.conf", -DCONFIG_LOCATION_SERVICE_EXTERNAL=y and -DCONFIG_NRF_CLOUD_PGPS_TRANSPORT_NONE=y options. For example:

west build -p -b build_target -d build -- -DEXTRA_CONF_FILE="overlay-cloud_mqtt.conf;overlay-pgps.conf" -DCONFIG_LOCATION_SERVICE_EXTERNAL=y -DCONFIG_NRF_CLOUD_PGPS_TRANSPORT_NONE=y

Replace the build_target with the build target of the nRF91 Series device you are using (see the Requirements section).

Remote control using nRF Cloud over MQTT

To enable the remote control feature, you need to build the sample with cloud connectivity, see Cloud over MQTT.

nRF91 Series DK with Zephyr native TCP/IP stack

To build the MoSh sample for an nRF91 Series DK with the nRF91 device driver that does not offload the TCP/IP stack to modem, use the -DEXTRA_CONF_FILE=overlay-non-offloading.conf option. With this configuration, the configured MoSh commands, for example iperf3, use the Zephyr native TCP/IP stack over the default LTE PDN context. For example:

west build -p -b build_target -- -DEXTRA_CONF_FILE=overlay-non-offloading.conf

Replace the build_target with the build target of the nRF91 Series device you are using (see the Requirements section).

BT shell support

To build the MoSh sample with Zephyr BT shell command support, use the -DDTC_OVERLAY_FILE=bt.overlay and -DEXTRA_CONF_FILE=overlay-bt.conf options. When running this configuration, you can perform BT scanning and advertising using the bt command.

Compile as follows:

west build -p -b nrf9160dk_nrf9160_ns -- -DDTC_OVERLAY_FILE="bt.overlay" -DEXTRA_CONF_FILE="overlay-bt.conf"

Additionally, you need to program the nRF52840 side of the nRF9160 DK as instructed in Cellular: LTE Sensor Gateway.

Compile the Bluetooth: HCI low power UART sample as follows:

west build -p -b nrf9160dk_nrf52840

The following example demonstrates how to use MoSh with two development kits, where one acts as a broadcaster and the other one as an observer.

DK #1, where MoSh is used in broadcaster (advertising) role:

mosh:~$ bt init
Bluetooth initialized
Settings Loaded
mosh:~$ bt name mosh-adv
mosh:~$ bt name
Bluetooth Local Name: mosh-adv
mosh:~$ bt advertise scan
Advertising started

/* And when done: */
mosh:~$ bt advertise off
Advertising stopped
mosh:~$

DK #2, where MoSh is used in observer (scanning) role:

mosh:~$ bt init
Bluetooth initialized
Settings Loaded
mosh:~$ bt name mosh-scanner
mosh:~$ bt name
Bluetooth Local Name: mosh-scanner
mosh:~$ bt scan-filter-set name mosh-adv
mosh:~$ bt scan on
Bluetooth active scan enabled
[DEVICE]: 11:22:33:44:55:66(random), AD evt type 4, RSSI -42 mosh-adv C:0 S:1 D:0 SR:1 E:0 Prim: LE 1M, Secn: No packets, Interval: 0x0000 (0 ms), SID: 0xff
...

/* And when done: */
mosh:~$ bt scan off
Scan successfully stopped
mosh:~$

Note

The MoSh sample with Zephyr BT shell command is not supported by the nRF91x1 DK.

SEGGER RTT support

To build the MoSh sample with SEGGER’s Real Time Transfer (RTT) support, use the -DEXTRA_CONF_FILE=overlay-rtt.conf option. When running this configuration, RTT is used as the shell backend instead of UART. For example:

west build -p -b build_target -- -DEXTRA_CONF_FILE=overlay-rtt.conf

Replace the build_target with the build target of the nRF91 Series device you are using (see the Requirements section).

LwM2M support

Before building and running the sample, select the LwM2M Server for testing. Follow the instructions in Server setup to set up the server and register your device to the server. With the default LwM2M configuration, the device connects directly to the device management server without bootstrap support. You can change the LwM2M Server address by setting the CONFIG_LWM2M_CLIENT_UTILS_SERVER Kconfig option.

Location assistance uses a proprietary mechanism to fetch location assistance data from nRF Cloud by proxying it through the LwM2M Server. As of now, you can only use AVSystem’s Coiote LwM2M Server for the location assistance data from nRF Cloud. To know more about the AVSystem integration with nRF Connect SDK, see AVSystem integration.

You can build the MoSh sample with different LwM2M configurations:

  • To build the MoSh sample with the default LwM2M configuration, use the -DEXTRA_CONF_FILE=overlay-lwm2m.conf option and set the used Pre-Shared-Key (PSK) using CONFIG_MOSH_LWM2M_PSK Kconfig option.

  • To enable bootstrapping, use the optional overlay file overlay-lwm2m_bootstrap.conf.

  • To enable P-GPS support, use the optional overlay files overlay-lwm2m_pgps.conf and overlay-pgps.conf.

To build the sample with LwM2M support, use the following command:

west build -p -b build_target -- -DEXTRA_CONF_FILE=overlay-lwm2m.conf -DCONFIG_MOSH_LWM2M_PSK="000102030405060708090a0b0c0d0e0f"

To also enable P-GPS, use the following command:

west build -p -b build_target -- -DEXTRA_CONF_FILE="overlay-lwm2m.conf;overlay-lwm2m_pgps.conf;overlay-pgps.conf" -DCONFIG_MOSH_LWM2M_PSK="000102030405060708090a0b0c0d0e0f"

Replace the build_target with the build target of the nRF91 Series device you are using (see the Requirements section).

Use the following command to establish connection to the LwM2M Server:

mosh:~$ cloud_lwm2m connect
LwM2M: Starting LwM2M client
LwM2M: Registration complete

Use the following command to disconnect from the LwM2M Server:

mosh:~$ cloud_lwm2m disconnect
LwM2M: Stopping LwM2M client
LwM2M: Disconnected

When connected, the location and gnss commands use the LwM2M cloud connection for fetching GNSS assistance data and for cellular positioning.

nRF91 Series DK with modem trace flash backend support

To build the MoSh sample for an nRF91 Series DK with modem trace flash backend support, use the snippet nrf91-modem-trace-ext-flash. For example:

west build -p -b build_target -S nrf91-modem-trace-ext-flash

Replace the build_target with the build target of the nRF91 Series device you are using (see the Requirements section).

References

Dependencies

This sample uses the following nRF Connect SDK libraries:

This sample uses the following sdk-nrfxlib libraries:

In addition, it uses the following secure firmware component: