Wi-Fi: Station

The Station sample demonstrates how to connect the Wi-Fi® station to a specified access point using Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP).

Requirements

The sample supports the following development kits:

Hardware platforms

PCA

Board name

Board target

Shields

Thingy:53

PCA20053

thingy53

thingy53/nrf5340/cpuapp

nRF7002 DK (emulating nRF7001)

PCA10143

nrf7002dk

nrf7002dk/nrf5340/cpuapp/nrf7001

nRF7002 DK

PCA10143

nrf7002dk

nrf7002dk/nrf5340/cpuapp

nRF5340 DK

PCA10095

nrf5340dk

nrf5340dk/nrf5340/cpuapp

nRF52840 DK

PCA10056

nrf52840dk

nrf52840dk/nrf52840

Overview

The sample can perform Wi-Fi operations such as connect and disconnect in the 2.4GHz and 5GHz bands depending on the capabilities of an access point.

Using this sample, the development kit can connect to the specified access point in STA mode.

User interface

The sample adds LED support to map with connection and disconnection events.

LED 1:

Starts blinking when the sample is connected to the access point.

Stops blinking when the sample is disconnected from the access point.

Configuration

See Configuring and building an application for information about how to permanently or temporarily change the configuration.

Configuration options

The following sample-specific Kconfig options are used in this sample (located in samples/wifi/sta/Kconfig):

CONFIG_CONNECTION_IDLE_TIMEOUT

(int) Time to be waited for a station to connect

None

CONFIG_NRF700X_QSPI_ENCRYPTION_KEY

(string) 16 bytes QSPI encryption key, only for testing purposes

Specify the QSPI encryption key

CONFIG_STA_CONN_TIMEOUT_SEC

(int) Overall Connection timeout i.e., time to be waited for a station to connect and get an IP address

Specify the connection timeout, in seconds. This is the overall timeout i.e., time to be waited for a station to connect and get an IP address. DHCP retries should be taken into account when setting this value. If the timeout is set to 0, the connection will not timeout.

You must configure the following Wi-Fi credentials in the prj.conf file:

Wi-Fi static credential options

If you want to configure the credentials statically, set the CONFIG_WIFI_CREDENTIALS_STATIC Kconfig option to y.

Important

Do not use static credentials in production environments.

Other options for statically configuring your Wi-Fi credentials:

Note

You can also use menuconfig to configure Wi-Fi credentials.

See Interactive Kconfig interfaces in the Zephyr documentation for instructions on how to run menuconfig.

Quad Serial Peripheral Interface (QSPI) encryption

This sample demonstrates QSPI encryption API usage. You can set the key using the CONFIG_NRF700X_QSPI_ENCRYPTION_KEY Kconfig option.

If encryption of the QSPI traffic is required for the production devices, matching keys must be programmed in both the nRF7002 OTP and non-volatile storage associated with the host. The key from non-volatile storage must be set as the encryption key using the APIs.

Power management

This sample also enables Zephyr’s power management policy by default, which sets the nRF5340 System on Chip (SoC) into low-power mode whenever it is idle. See Power Management in the Zephyr documentation for more information on power management.

IP addressing

The sample uses DHCP to obtain an IP address for the Wi-Fi interface. It starts with a default static IP address to handle networks without DHCP servers, or if the DHCP server is not available. Successful DHCP handshake will override the default static IP configuration.

You can change the following default static configuration in the prj.conf file:

CONFIG_NET_CONFIG_MY_IPV4_ADDR="192.168.1.98"
CONFIG_NET_CONFIG_MY_IPV4_NETMASK="255.255.255.0"
CONFIG_NET_CONFIG_MY_IPV4_GW="192.168.1.1"

Building and running

This sample can be found under samples/wifi/sta in the nRF Connect SDK folder structure.

When built as firmware image for a board target with the */ns variant, the sample has Cortex-M Security Extensions (CMSE) enabled and separates the firmware between Non-Secure Processing Environment (NSPE) and Secure Processing Environment (SPE). Because of this, it automatically includes the Trusted Firmware-M (TF-M). To read more about CMSE, see Processing environments.

To build the sample with Visual Studio Code, follow the steps listed on the How to build an application page in the nRF Connect for VS Code extension documentation. See Configuring and building an application for other building scenarios, Programming an application for programming steps, and Testing and optimization for general information about testing and debugging in the nRF Connect SDK.

Currently, only the nRF7002 DK is supported.

To build for the nRF7002 DK, use the nrf7002dk/nrf5340/cpuapp board target. The following is an example of the CLI command:

west build -b nrf7002dk/nrf5340/cpuapp

Testing

After programming the sample to your development kit, complete the following steps to test it:

  1. Connect the kit to the computer using a USB cable. The kit is assigned a COM port (Windows) or ttyACM device (Linux), which is visible in the Device Manager.

  2. Connect to the kit with a terminal emulator (for example, nRF Connect Serial Terminal). See Testing and optimization for the required settings and steps.

    The sample shows the following output:

    [00:00:02.016,235] <inf> sta: Connection requested
    [00:00:02.316,314] <inf> sta: ==================
    [00:00:02.316,314] <inf> sta: State: SCANNING
    [00:00:02.616,424] <inf> sta: ==================
    [00:00:02.616,424] <inf> sta: State: SCANNING
    [00:00:02.916,534] <inf> sta: ==================
    [00:00:02.916,534] <inf> sta: State: SCANNING
    [00:00:03.216,613] <inf> sta: ==================
    [00:00:03.216,613] <inf> sta: State: SCANNING
    [00:00:03.516,723] <inf> sta: ==================
    [00:00:03.516,723] <inf> sta: State: SCANNING
    [00:00:03.816,802] <inf> sta: ==================
    [00:00:03.816,802] <inf> sta: State: SCANNING
    [00:00:04.116,882] <inf> sta: ==================
    [00:00:04.116,882] <inf> sta: State: SCANNING
    [00:00:04.416,961] <inf> sta: ==================
    [00:00:04.416,961] <inf> sta: State: SCANNING
    [00:00:04.717,071] <inf> sta: ==================
    [00:00:04.717,071] <inf> sta: State: SCANNING
    [00:00:05.017,150] <inf> sta: ==================
    [00:00:05.017,150] <inf> sta: State: SCANNING
    [00:00:05.317,230] <inf> sta: ==================
    [00:00:05.317,230] <inf> sta: State: SCANNING
    [00:00:05.617,309] <inf> sta: ==================
    [00:00:05.617,309] <inf> sta: State: SCANNING
    [00:00:05.917,419] <inf> sta: ==================
    [00:00:05.917,419] <inf> sta: State: SCANNING
    [00:00:06.217,529] <inf> sta: ==================
    [00:00:06.217,529] <inf> sta: State: SCANNING
    [00:00:06.517,639] <inf> sta: ==================
    [00:00:06.517,639] <inf> sta: State: SCANNING
    [00:00:06.817,749] <inf> sta: ==================
    [00:00:06.817,749] <inf> sta: State: SCANNING
    [00:00:07.117,858] <inf> sta: ==================
    [00:00:07.117,858] <inf> sta: State: SCANNING
    [00:00:07.336,730] <inf> wpa_supp: wlan0: SME: Trying to authenticate with aa:bb:cc:dd:ee:ff (SSID='<MySSID>' freq=5785 MHz)
    [00:00:07.353,027] <inf> nrf_wifi: nrf_wifi_wpa_supp_authenticate:Authentication request sent successfully
    
    [00:00:07.417,938] <inf> sta: ==================
    [00:00:07.417,938] <inf> sta: State: AUTHENTICATING
    [00:00:07.606,628] <inf> wpa_supp: wlan0: Trying to associate with aa:bb:cc:dd:ee:ff (SSID='<MySSID>' freq=5785 MHz)
    [00:00:07.609,680] <inf> nrf_wifi: nrf_wifi_wpa_supp_associate: Association request sent successfully
    
    [00:00:07.621,978] <inf> wpa_supp: wpa_drv_zep_get_ssid: SSID size: 5
    
    [00:00:07.622,070] <inf> wpa_supp: wlan0: Associated with aa:bb:cc:dd:ee:ff
    [00:00:07.622,192] <inf> wpa_supp: wlan0: CTRL-EVENT-CONNECTED - Connection to aa:bb:cc:dd:ee:ff completed [id=0 id_str=]
    [00:00:07.622,192] <inf> sta: Connected
    [00:00:07.623,779] <inf> wpa_supp: wlan0: CTRL-EVENT-SUBNET-STATUS-UPDATE status=0
    [00:00:07.648,406] <inf> net_dhcpv4: Received: 192.168.119.6
    [00:00:07.648,468] <inf> net_config: IPv4 address: 192.168.119.6
    [00:00:07.648,498] <inf> net_config: Lease time: 3599 seconds
    [00:00:07.648,498] <inf> net_config: Subnet: 255.255.255.0
    [00:00:07.648,529] <inf> net_config: Router: 192.168.119.147
    [00:00:07.648,559] <inf> sta: DHCP IP address: 192.168.119.6
    [00:00:07.720,153] <inf> sta: ==================
    [00:00:07.720,153] <inf> sta: State: COMPLETED
    [00:00:07.720,153] <inf> sta: Interface Mode: STATION
    [00:00:07.720,184] <inf> sta: Link Mode: WIFI 6 (802.11ax/HE)
    [00:00:07.720,184] <inf> sta: SSID: <MySSID>
    [00:00:07.720,214] <inf> sta: BSSID: aa:bb:cc:dd:ee:ff
    [00:00:07.720,214] <inf> sta: Band: 5GHz
    [00:00:07.720,214] <inf> sta: Channel: 157
    [00:00:07.720,245] <inf> sta: Security: OPEN
    [00:00:07.720,245] <inf> sta: MFP: UNKNOWN
    [00:00:07.720,245] <inf> sta: RSSI: -57
    [00:00:07.720,245] <inf> sta: Static IP address:
    

Power management testing

You can use this sample to measure the current consumption of both the nRF5340 SoC and the nRF7002 device independently by using two separate Power Profiler Kit II (PPK2) devices. The nRF5340 SoC is connected to the first PPK2 and the nRF7002 DK is connected to the second PPK2.

See Measuring current for more information about how to set up and measure the current consumption of both the nRF5340 SoC and the nRF7002 device.

The average current consumption in an idle case can be around ~1-2 mA in the nRF5340 SoC and ~20 µA in the nRF7002 device.

See Power optimization for more information on power management testing and usage of the PPK2.

Dependencies

This sample uses the following library: