Bluetooth: MTU Update


Question: What do I have to do to update my ATT MTU?

Answer: To get an ATT MTU of x octets, do the following:
Set CONFIG_BT_L2CAP_TX_MTU to at least x
Set CONFIG_BT_BUF_ACL_RX_SIZE to at least x + L2CAP header size (4 octets).
Set CONFIG_BT_BUF_ACL_RX_SIZE to at least x + L2CAP header + SDU length field length (6 octets) if using CONFIG_BT_EATT.
Ensure the remote side supports the same MTUs.

Question: I only want to send large packets. I don’t need to receive large ones. Do I still need to set CONFIG_BT_BUF_ACL_RX_SIZE?

Answer: Yes. [1] The Bluetooth specification mandates a symmetric MTU for ATT.


This sample demonstrates the exchange of MTU between two devices to allow a large notification to be sent. Updating the MTU can be useful to send bigger packets and so have a better throughput.

To be able to send a large notification both the server and the client need to update their MTU. The MTU is not a negotiated value, the client and the server will exchange their MTUs and choose the minimum of the two. Thus the two MTU can be set to a different value, but the MTU of the server must be greater or equal to the MTU of the client.

According to the Bluetooth specification, [2] MTU is the maximum size of SDUs. However, in Zephyr, we can assume that it also represents the maximum size of the PDUs. Because, in Bluetooth LE, [3] unless we are using L2CAP dynamic channels, SDUs are not segmented. The Kconfig symbol used to configure the size of the TX MTU is CONFIG_BT_L2CAP_TX_MTU. There is no Kconfig symbol to update the size of the RX MTU, because Zephyr uses a buffer pool for ACL RX buffers coming from the controller. The L2CAP RX MTU is defined as the maximum size of ACL RX buffers minus the L2CAP header size. That maximum ACL RX buffer size is configured with CONFIG_BT_BUF_ACL_RX_SIZE. The resulting L2CAP RX MTU will be the value of this Kconfig symbol minus the L2CAP header size.

Diagram of the MTUs and their corresponding Kconfig symbols

Diagram of the MTUs and their corresponding Kconfig symbols

Hardware Setup

This sample use two applications, two devices need to be setup. The first one should be flashed with the central and the second one with the peripheral.

The two devices will connect only if they are close to each other, because of RSSI filtering.

Building and Running

This sample can be found under samples/bluetooth/mtu_update in the Zephyr tree.

See bluetooth samples section for details.

If the devices are close enough, the central should connect to the peripheral and send his MTU to the other device. If the MTU exchange succeeds, the central should subscribe and then the peripheral will send a large notification. Right after receiving the notification the central should unsubscribe.

Here are the outputs you should have on the devices:


*** Booting Zephyr OS build zephyr-v3.2.0-2251-g95d8943c69ce ***
Bluetooth initialized
Scanning successfully started
Device found: EB:BF:36:26:42:09 (random) (RSSI -34)
Connected: EB:BF:36:26:42:09 (random)
mtu_exchange: Current MTU = 23
mtu_exchange: Exchange MTU...
mtu_exchange_cb: MTU exchange successful (247)
[ATTRIBUTE] handle 16
[ATTRIBUTE] handle 17
[ATTRIBUTE] handle 19
[NOTIFICATION] data 0x20004b73 length 100


*** Booting Zephyr OS build zephyr-v3.2.0-2251-g95d8943c69ce ***
Updated MTU: TX: 23 RX: 23 bytes
Updated MTU: TX: 247 RX: 247 bytes
MTU Test Update: notifications enabled
MTU Test Update: notifications disabled