Partition Manager

The Partition Manager is a Python script that sets the start address and size of all image partitions in a multi-image build context. When creating an application that requires child images (for example, a bootloader), you can configure the Partition Manager to control where in memory each image should be placed.

See Multi-image builds for more information about multi-image builds.

The Partition Manager is activated for all multi-image builds, no matter what build strategy is used for the child image.

Overview

The Partition Manager script reads configuration files named pm.yml, which define flash partitions. A partition’s definition includes its name and constraints on its size and placement on flash. The Partition Manager allocates a start address and sometimes a size to each partition in a way that satisfies these constraints.

There are different kinds of partitions:

Image partitions

An image partition is the flash area reserved for an image, to which the image binary is written.

When the Partition Manager is active, there is one root image and one or more child images. The name of the root image is app; it is always implicitly defined. Child images are explicitly defined in pm.yml files. The size of the root image partition is dynamic, while the sizes of all child image partitions are statically defined.

Placeholder partitions

A placeholder partition does not contain an image, but reserves space for other uses. For example, you might want to reserve space in flash to hold an updated application image while it is being downloaded and before it is copied to the application image partition.

Container partitions

A container partition does not reserve space, but is used to logically and/or physically group other partitions.

The start addresses and sizes of image partitions are used in the preprocessing of the linker script for each image.

Configuration

Each child image must define its Partition Manager configuration in a file called pm.yml. This file must be stored in the same folder as the main CMakeLists.txt file of the child image.

Note

pm.yml is only used for child images. The root application does not need to define a pm.yml file, because its partition size and placement is implied by the size and placement of the child image partitions. If a root application defines a pm.yml file, it is silently ignored.

The Partition Manager configuration can be also provided by a subsystem. (Here, subsystem means a software component, like support for a file system.) Subsystem Partition Manager configurations cannot define image partitions.

See subsys/partition_manager/CMakeLists.txt for details on how to add the subsystem-specific Partition Manager configuration files. The code below shows how the settings subsystem configuration is added.

if (CONFIG_SETTINGS_FCB OR CONFIG_SETTINGS_NVS)
  add_partition_manager_config(pm.yml.settings)
endif()

There are some limitations when multiple application images within the same domain build the same subsystem code if it adds a Partition Manager configuration file in this way. In particular, partition definitions are global per domain, and must be identical across calls to add_partition_manager_config(). If the same partition is defined twice with different configurations within a domain, the Partition Manager will fail.

Configuration file format

A pm.yml file contains partition definitions. Each partition is defined as follows:

partition_name:
   partition_property:
      property_value

partition_name is the name of the partition (for example, mcuboot). The following partition properties and property values are available:

placement: dict

This property specifies the placement of the partition relative to other partitions, to the start or end of flash, or to the root image app.

A partition with the placement property set is either an image partition or a placeholder partition. If the partition name is the same as the image name (as defined in a CMakeLists.txt; see Defining and enabling a child image for details), this partition is the image partition. All other partitions are placeholder partitions. Each pm.yml file must define exactly one image partition.

The placement is formatted as a YAML dict. The valid keywords are listed below:

before: list

Place the partition before the first existing partition in the list.

after: list

Place the partition after the first existing partition in the list.

Valid values in the lists are app, start, end, or the name of any partition. The value start refers to the start address of the flash device’s memory. The value end refers to its end address. It is not possible to place the partition after end or before start.

align: dict

Ensure alignment of start or end of partition by specifying a dict with a start or end key respectively, where the value is the number of bytes to align to. If necessary, empty partitions are inserted in front of or behind the partition to ensure that the alignment is correct. Only one key can be specified. Partitions which directly or indirectly (through spans) share size with the app partitions can only be aligned if they are placed directly after the app partition.

span: list OR span: string

This property is used to define container partitions. Its value may be a list or string.

Since this property is used to define container partitions, it cannot be used together with the placement property.

If the value is a list, its elements are the names of the partitions that should be placed in the container:

# This partition spans, or contains, partition_1 through partition_n,
# in any order:
container_partition_name:
  span: [partition_1, partition_2, ..., partition_n]

The list elements are interpreted as the set of potential partitions in the container, which the Partition Manager may place in flash in any order. For example, partition_2 could be placed before partition_1.

If the value is a string, it is interpreted as a list with one item:

# The following are equivalent:

container_partition_name:
  span: foo

container_partition_name:
  span: [foo]

Non-existent partitions are removed from the span list before processing, and partitions with empty span lists are removed altogether (unless filled by the inside property).

If the Partition Manager is forced to place a partition that is not declared in the span list between two partitions that are in the list, the configuration is unsatisfiable and therefore invalid. See Span property example 1 for an example of an invalid configuration.

Note

You can specify configurations with an ambiguous ordering (see the following examples). Different versions of the Partition Manager script may produce different partition orders for such configurations, or fail to find a solution even if one is possible. The Partition Manager always detects unsatisfiable configurations (no false positives), but it might fail on some valid inputs (false negatives).

Here are some examples of valid and invalid configurations.

Span property example 1 (invalid)
# The mcuboot and spm configurations result in this partition order:
# mcuboot, spm, app

mcuboot:
   placement:
      before: [spm, app]

spm:
   placement:
      before: [app]

# Therefore, the foo partition configuration is invalid, because spm
# must be placed between mcuboot and app, but is not in the span list:

foo:
   span: [mcuboot, app]
Span property example 2 (valid)
# These mcuboot, spm, and app configurations have two possible orders:
# Order 1: mcuboot, spm, app
# Order 2: mcuboot, app, spm
#
# In the absence of additional configuration, the Partition Manager may
# choose either order.

mcuboot:
   placement:

spm:
   placement:
      after: [mcuboot]

app:
   placement:
      after: [mcuboot]

# However, since the following span exists, the Partition Manager should
# choose order 2, since it's the only order that results in a valid
# configuration for the foo partition:

foo:
   span: [mcuboot, app]
Span property example 3 (invalid)
# These mcuboot, spm, and app configurations have two possible orders:
# Order 1: mcuboot, spm, app
# Order 2: mcuboot, app, spm

mcuboot:
   placement:

spm:
   placement:
      after: [mcuboot]

app:
   placement:
      after: [mcuboot]

# However, the overall configuration is unsatisfiable:
# foo requires order 2, while bar requires order 1.

foo:
   span: [mcuboot, app]

bar:
   span: [mcuboot, spm]
inside: list

This property is the inverse of span. The name of the partition that specifies this property is added to the span list of the first existing container partition in the list. This property can be set for image or placeholder partitions.

Example for the inside property
mcuboot:
   inside: [b0]

b0:
   span: [] # During processing, this span will contain mcuboot.
size: hexadecimal value

This property defines the size of the partition. You can provide a Kconfig option as value, which allows the user to easily modify the size (see Configuration file preprocessing for an example).

share_size: list

This property defines the size of the current partition to be the same as the size of the first existing partition in the list. This property can be set for image or placeholder partitions. It cannot be used by container partitions. The list can contain any kind of partition. share_size takes precedence over size if one or more partitions in share_size exists.

If the target partition is the app or a partition that spans over the app, the size is effectively split between them, because the size of the app is dynamically decided.

If none of the partitions in the share_size list exists, and the partition does not define a size property, then the partition is removed. If none of the partitions in the share_size list exists, and the partition does define a size property, then the size property is used to set the size.

region: string

Specify the region where a partition should be placed. See Regions.

All occurrences of a partition name can be replaced with a dict with the key one_of, which is resolved to the first existing partition in the one_of value. An error is raised if no partition inside the one_of dict exists.

Example use of a one_of dict
# Using 'one_of' in a list like this ...
some_span:
   span: [something, {one_of: [does_not_exist_0, does_not_exist_1, exists1, exists2]}]

# ... is equivalent to:
some_span:
   span: [something, exists1]

# Using 'one_of' as a dict value like this ...
some_partition:
   placement:
      before: {one_of: [does_not_exist_0, does_not_exist_1, exists1, exists2]}

# ... is equivalent to:
some_partition:
   placement:
      before: exists1

Configuration file preprocessing

Each pm.yml file is preprocessed to resolve symbols from Kconfig and DTS.

The following example is taken from the pm.yml file for the Immutable bootloader provided with the nRF Connect SDK. It includes autoconf.h (which is generated by Kconfig) and uses a Kconfig variable to configure the size of the b0 partition.

#include <autoconf.h>
#include <devicetree_unfixed.h>

# 'b0' is the name of the image partition.
b0:

  # b0 is placed before the mcuboot partition if the mcuboot partition
  # exists, otherwise it is stored before the app partition.
  placement:
    before: [mcuboot, app]
    align: {end: 0x8000}  # Align to size of SPU-lockable region.

  # The size of the b0 partition is configured in Kconfig.
  size: CONFIG_BOOTLOADER_PARTITION_SIZE

# Don't define the provision partition if the SoC is nRF9160, because
# the provisioning data is stored in the UICR->OTP data region.

#ifndef CONFIG_SOC_NRF9160

# 'provision' is the name of the placeholder partition.
provision:
  # This partition is stored at the very end of flash.
  placement: {before: end}

#endif /* CONFIG_SOC_NRF9160 */

Regions

The Partition Manager places partitions in different regions. For example, you can use regions for internal flash memory and external flash memory.

To define in which region a partition should be placed, use the region property in the configuration of the partition. If no region is specified, the predefined internal flash region is used.

Defining a region

Each region is defined by a name, a start address, a size, a placement strategy, and, if applicable, a device name. A region only specifies a device name if there is a device driver associated with the region, for example, a driver for an external SPI flash.

There are three types of placement strategies, which affect how partitions are placed in regions:

start_to_end

Place partitions sequentially from start to end. Partitions stored in a region with this placement strategy cannot affect their placement through the placement property. The unused part of the region is assigned to a partition with the same name as the region.

end_to_start

Place partitions sequentially from end to start. Partitions stored in a region with this placement strategy cannot affect their placement through the placement property. The unused part of the region is exposed through a partition with the same name as the region.

complex

Place partitions according to their placement configuration. The unused part of the region is exposed through a partition named app.

Regions are defined in partition_manager.cmake. For example, see the following definitions for default regions:

add_region(     # Define region without device name
  otp           # Name
  756           # Size
  0xff8108      # Base address
  start_to_end  # Placement strategy
  )

add_region_with_dev(           # Define region with device name
  flash_primary                # Name
  ${flash_size}                # Size
  ${CONFIG_FLASH_BASE_ADDRESS} # Base address
  complex                      # Placement strategy
  NRF_FLASH_DRV_NAME           # Device name
  )

External flash

The Partition Manager supports partitions in external flash memory through the use of Regions. Any placeholder partition can specify that it should be stored in the external flash region. External flash regions always use the start_to_end placement strategy.

To use external flash, you must provide information about the device to the Partition Manager through these Kconfig options:

The following example assumes that the flash device has been initialized as follows in the flash driver:

DEVICE_AND_API_INIT(spi_flash_memory, "name_of_flash_device", ... );

To enable external flash support in the Partition Manager, configure the following options:

# prj.conf of application
CONFIG_PM_EXTERNAL_FLASH=y
CONFIG_PM_EXTERNAL_FLASH_DEV_NAME="name_of_flash_device"
CONFIG_PM_EXTERNAL_FLASH_BASE=0x1000  # Don't touch magic stuff at the start
CONFIG_PM_EXTERNAL_FLASH_SIZE=0x7F000 # Total size of external flash from base

Now partitions can be placed in external flash:

# Name of partition
external_plz:
  region: external_flash
  size: CONFIG_EXTERNAL_PLZ_SIZE

Build system

The build system finds the child images that have been enabled and their configurations.

For each image, the Partition Manager’s CMake code infers the paths to the following files and folders from the name and from other global properties:

  • The pm.yml file

  • The compiled HEX file

  • The generated include folder

After CMake finishes configuring the child images, the Partition Manager script is executed in configure time (execute_process) with the lists of names and paths as argument. The configurations generated by the Partition Manager script are imported as CMake variables (see CMake).

The Partition Manager script outputs a partitions.yml file. This file contains the internal state of the Partition Manager at the end of processing. This means it contains the merged contents of all pm.yml files, the sizes and addresses of all partitions, and other information generated by the Partition Manager.

Generated output

After the main Partition Manager script has finished, another script runs. This script takes the partitions.yml file as input and creates the following output files:

  • A C header file pm_config.h for each child image and for the root application

  • A key-value file pm.config

The header files are used in the C code, while the key-value file is imported into the CMake namespace. Both kinds of files contain, among other information, the start address and size of all partitions.

Usage

The output that the Partition Manager generates can be used in various areas of your code.

C code

When the Partition Manager is enabled, all source files are compiled with the define USE_PARTITION_MANAGER set to 1. If you use this define in your code, the preprocessor can choose what code to include depending on whether the Partition Manager is being used.

#if USE_PARTITION_MANAGER
#include <pm_config.h>
#define NON_SECURE_APP_ADDRESS PM_APP_ADDRESS
#else
...

HEX files

The Partition Manager may implicitly or explicitly assign a HEX file to a partition.

Image partitions are implicitly assigned the compiled HEX file, i.e. the HEX file that is generated when building the corresponding image. Container partitions are implicitly assigned the result of merging the HEX files that are assigned to the underlying partitions. Placeholder partitions are not implicitly assigned a HEX file.

To explicitly assign a HEX file to a partition, set the global properties partition_name_PM_HEX_FILE and partition_name_PM_TARGET in CMake, where partition_name is the name of the partition. partition_name_PM_TARGET specifies the build target that generates the HEX file specified in partition_name_PM_HEX_FILE.

See the following example, which assigns a cryptographically signed HEX file built by the sign_target build target to the root application:

set_property(
  GLOBAL PROPERTY
  app_PM_HEX_FILE # Must match "*_PM_HEX_FILE"
  ${PROJECT_BINARY_DIR}/signed.hex
)

set_property(
  GLOBAL PROPERTY
  app_PM_TARGET # Must match "*_PM_TARGET"
  sign_target
)

As output, the Partition Manager creates a HEX file called merged.hex, which is programmed to the board when calling ninja flash. When creating merged.hex, all assigned HEX files are included in the merge operation. If the HEX files overlap, the conflict is resolved as follows:

  • HEX files assigned to container partitions overwrite HEX files assigned to their underlying partitions.

  • HEX files assigned to larger partitions overwrite HEX files assigned to smaller partitions.

  • Explicitly assigned HEX files overwrite implicitly assigned HEX files.

This means that you can overwrite a partition’s HEX file by wrapping that partition in another partition and assigning a HEX file to the new partition.

ROM report

When using the Partition Manager, run ninja rom_report to see the addresses and sizes of flash partitions.

CMake

The CMake variables from the Partition Manager are typically used through generator expressions, because these variables are only made available late in the CMake configure stage. To read a Partition Manager variable through a generator expression, the variable must be assigned as a target property. The Partition Manager stores all variables as target properties on the partition_manager target, which means they can be used in generator expressions in the following way.

Reading Partition Manager variables in generator expressions
--slot-size $<TARGET_PROPERTY:partition_manager,PM_MCUBOOT_PARTITIONS_PRIMARY_SIZE>

Static configuration

By default, the Partition Manager dynamically places the partitions in memory. However, if you have a deployed product that consists of multiple images, where only a subset of the included images can be upgraded through a firmware update mechanism, the upgradable images must be statically configured. For example, if a device includes a non-upgradable first-stage bootloader and an upgradable application, the application image to be upgraded must be linked to the same address as the one that is deployed.

For this purpose, the Partition Manager provides static configuration to define static partitions. The area used by the static partitions is called the static area. The static area comes in addition to the dynamic area, which consists of the app partition and all memory adjacent to the app partition that is not occupied by a static partition. Note that there is only one dynamic area. When the Partition Manager is executed, it operates only on the dynamic area, assuming that all other memory is reserved.

Within the dynamic area, you can define new partitions or configure existing partitions even if you are using static partitions. The dynamic area is resized as required when updating the static configuration.

Configuring static partitions

Static partitions are defined through a YAML-formatted configuration file in the root application’s source directory. This file is similar to the regular pm.yml configuration files, except that it also defines the start address for all partitions.

If the build system discovers a file named pm_static.yml, it automatically provides it to the Partition Manager script as static configuration. The static configuration can be provided through a pm_static.yml file in the application’s source directory. Alternatively, define a PM_STATIC_YML_FILE variable that provides the path and file name for the static configuration in the application’s CMakeLists.txt file.

The current partition configuration for a build can be found in $BUILD_DIR/partitions.yml. To apply the current configuration as a static configuration, copy this file to $APPLICATION_SOURCE_DIR/pm_static.yml.

You can add or remove partitions as described in the following sections.

Note

If the static configuration contains an entry for the app partition, this entry is ignored.

Removing a static partition

To remove a static partition, delete its entry in pm_static.yml.

Only partitions adjacent to the app partition or other removed partitions can be removed.

Adding a dynamic partition

New dynamic partitions that are listed in a pm.yml file are automatically added. However, if a partition is defined both as static partition and as dynamic partition, the dynamic definition is ignored.

Note

When resolving the relative placement of dynamic partitions, any placement properties referencing static partitions are ignored.

Adding a static partition

To add a static partition, add an entry for it in pm_static.yml. This entry must define the properties address, size, and - if applicable - span.

Example of static configuration of a partition with span
partition_name:
   address: 0xab00
   size: 0x1000
   span: [example]  # Only if this partition had the span property set originally.

Note

Child images that are built with the build strategy partition_name_BUILD_STRATEGY_SKIP_BUILD or partition_name_BUILD_STRATEGY_USE_HEX_FILE must define a static partition to ensure correct placement of the dynamic partitions.