nRF9160: Modem Shell

The Modem Shell (MoSh) sample application enables you to test various device connectivity features, including data throughput.

Requirements

The sample supports the following development kits:

Hardware platforms

PCA

Board name

Build target

Thingy:91

PCA20035

thingy91_nrf9160

thingy91_nrf9160_ns

nRF9160 DK

PCA10090

nrf9160dk_nrf9160

nrf9160dk_nrf9160_ns

The sample is configured to compile and run as a non-secure application on nRF91’s Cortex-M33. Therefore, it automatically includes the Secure Partition Manager that prepares the required peripherals to be available for the application.

You can also configure it to use TF-M instead of Secure Partition Manager.

Overview

MoSh enables testing of different connectivity features such as LTE link handling, TCP/IP connections, data throughput (iperf3 and curl), SMS, GNSS, FOTA updates and PPP. Hence, this sample is not only code sample, which it also is in many aspects, but also a test application for aforementioned features. MoSh uses the LTE link control driver to establish an LTE connection and initializes the Zephyr shell to provide a shell command-line interface for users.

The subsections list the MoSh features and show shell command examples for their usage.


AT commands

MoSh command: at

You can use the AT command module to send AT commands to the modem, individually or in a separate plain AT command mode where also pipelining of AT commands is supported.

Examples

  • Send AT command to query network status:

    at at+cereg?
    
  • Send AT command to query neighbor cells:

    at at%NBRGRSRP
    
  • Enable AT command events:

    at events_enable
    
  • Disable AT command events:

    at events_disable
    
  • Enable autostarting of AT command mode in next bootup:

    at at_cmd_mode enable_autostart
    
  • Start AT command mode:

    at at_cmd_mode start
    MoSh AT command mode started, press ctrl-x ctrl-q to escape
    MoSh specific AT commands:
      ICMP Ping: AT+NPING=<addr>[,<payload_length>,<timeout_msecs>,<count>[,<interval_msecs>[,<cid>]]]
    Other custom functionalities:
      AT command pipelining, for example:
        at+cgmr|at+cfun?|at+nping="example.com"
    ===========================================================
    at
    OK
    

Ping

MoSh command: ping

Ping is a tool for testing the reachability of a host on an IP network.

Examples

  • Ping a URL:

    ping -d ping.server.url
    
  • Ping an IPv6 address with length of 500 bytes and 1 s intervals (the used PDN needs to support IPv6):

    ping -d 1a2b:1a2b:1a2b:1a2b::1 -6 -l 500 -i 1000
    

Iperf3

MoSh command: iperf

Iperf3 is a tool for measuring data transfer performance both in uplink and downlink direction.

Note

Some features, for example file operations and TCP option tuning, are not supported.

Examples

  • Download data over TCP for 30 seconds with a buffer size of 3540 bytes and use detailed output:

    iperf3 --client 111.222.111.222 --port 10000 -l 3540 --time 30 -V -R
    
  • Upload data over TCP for 30 seconds with the payload size of 708 bytes using a PDN with ID #2 (use the link status command to see the active PDNs and their IDs):

    iperf3 -c 111.222.111.222 -p 10000 -l 708 -t 30 --pdn_id 2
    
  • Upload data over UDP for 60 seconds with the payload size of 1240 bytes and use the detailed output as well as debug output:

    iperf3 --client 111.222.111.222 --port 10000 -l 1240 --time 60 -u -V -d
    
  • Download data over TCP/IPv6 for 10 seconds (the used PDN needs to support IPv6, use the link status command to see PDP type support for active contexts):

    iperf3 --client 1a2b:1a2b:1a2b:1a2b::1 --port 20000 --time 10 -R -6
    

Curl

MoSh command: curl

Curl is a command-line tool for transferring data specified with URL syntax. It is a part of MoSh and enables you to test the data download with a “standard” tool.

Note

File operations are not supported.

Examples

  • HTTP download:

    curl http://curl.server.url/small.txt
    curl http://curl.server.url/bigger_file.zip --output /dev/null
    
  • HTTP upload for given data:

    curl http://curl.server.url/data -d "foo=bar"
    
  • HTTP upload for given number of bytes sent in a POST body:

    curl http://curl.server.url/data -d #500000
    
  • HTTP upload for given number of bytes sent in a POST body using a PDN with ID #1 (use the link status command to see active PDNs and their IDs):

    curl http://curl.server.url/data -d #500000 --pdn_id 1
    

Socket tool

MoSh command: sock

You can use the socket tool to:

  • Create and manage socket connections.

  • Send and receive data.

Examples

  • Open and connect to an IP address and port (IPv4 TCP socket):

    sock connect -a 111.222.111.222 -p 20000
    
  • Open and connect to hostname and port (IPv4 TCP socket):

    sock connect -a google.com -p 20000
    
  • Open and connect an IPv6 TCP socket and bind to a port:

    sock connect -a 1a2b:1a2b:1a2b:1a2b::1 -p 20000 -f inet6 -t stream -b 40000
    
  • Open an IPv6 UDP socket:

    sock connect -a 1a2b:1a2b:1a2b:1a2b::1 -p 20000 -f inet6 -t dgram
    
  • Open a raw socket:

    sock connect -f packet -t raw
    
  • Open a socket to a non-default PDP context:

    link connect -a nondefault.context.com
    sock connect -f packet -t raw -I 1
    
  • Send a string through the socket:

    sock send -i 0 -d testing
    
  • Send 100 kB of data and show throughput statistics:

    sock send -i 0 -l 100000
    
  • Send data periodically with 10 s interval:

    sock send -i 0 -e 10 -d test_periodic
    
  • Calculate the receive throughput:

    <do whatever is needed to make device receive data after some time>
    sock recv -i 0 -r -l 1000000
    sock recv -i 0
    sock recv -i 0
    
  • Close a socket:

    sock close -i 0
    
  • Use RAI settings:

    link funmode -4
    link rai -e
    link funmode -1
    sock connect -a 111.222.111.222 -p 20000
    sock rai -i 0 --rai_last
    sock send -i 0 -d testing
    
  • List open sockets:

    sock list
    

SMS tool

MoSh command: sms

You can use the SMS tool for sending and receiving SMS messages.

Examples

  • Register the SMS service so that messages can be received if SIM subscription supports it:

    sms reg
    
  • Send an SMS message (registration is done automatically if not already done):

    sms send -n +987654321 -m testing
    

Location tool

MoSh command: location

You can use the Location tool for retrieving device’s location with different methods. See Location library for information on the configuration of different location methods and services. Some default configurations are available to facilitate trials.

Examples

  • Retrieve location with default configuration:

    location get
    
  • Retrieve location with Wi-Fi positioning. You need to have a Wi-Fi-enabled device and build the sample with Wi-Fi support. If the location is not found, use cellular positioning:

    location get --method wifi --wifi_timeout 60 --method cellular --cellular_service nrf
    
  • Retrieve location periodically every hour with GNSS and if not found, use cellular positioning:

    location get --interval 3600 --method gnss --gnss_timeout 300 --method cellular
    
  • Cancel ongoing location request or periodic location request:

    location cancel
    

GNSS

MoSh command: gnss

GNSS provides commands for searching the location of the device.

Examples

  • Start GNSS tracking and stop it:

    gnss start
    gnss stop
    
  • Disable LTE, enable all GNSS output and start continuous tracking with power saving enabled:

    link funmode --lteoff
    gnss output 2 1 1
    gnss mode cont
    gnss config powersave perf
    gnss start
    
  • Enable LTE PSM, only NMEA output, automatic A-GPS data fetching and start periodic fixes with 5 minute interval and 120 second timeout:

    link psm -e
    gnss output 0 1 0
    gnss agps automatic enable
    gnss mode periodic 300 120
    gnss start
    

FOTA

MoSh command: fota

You can use FOTA to perform software updates over-the-air for both modem and application side. However, to use this feature, you need to know which updates are available in the servers. This feature is intended to be used only by selected users and customers to whom available image names are communicated separately.

Examples

  • Perform a FOTA update:

    fota download eu fw_update_package_filename.hex
    

PPP

MoSh command: ppp

You can use the PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) to enable dial-up access to the Internet. The MoSh command is simple but you need to have a normal dial-up setup in your PC to be able to use the development kit’s PPP interface.

Note

On Windows, dial-up connection is not functional when using Segger virtual UART ports. PPP has been used successfully with FTDI UART port though. Refer to nRF9160 Hardware Verification Guidelines - UART interface.

PPP has been successfully used running Ubuntu Linux in a virtualization environment hosted by Windows. In the hosted virtual Linux environment, using PPP is possible also with plain Segger UART ports.

Examples

  • PPP network interface is brought up/down automatically when LTE connection is up/down. Set the PPP network interface up manually:

    ppp up
    
  • Set the PPP network interface down manually:

    ppp down
    
  • Set the custom baudrate configuration for PPP UART (default: 115200):

    ppp uartconf --baudrate 921600
    
  • Set the rts_cts hardware flow control configuration for PPP UART (default: none):

    ppp uartconf --flowctrl rts_cts
    

REST client

MoSh command: rest

You can use the REST client for sending simple REST requests and receiving responses to them.

Examples

  • Sending a HEAD request with custom dummy headers:

    rest -d example.com -l 1024 -m head -H "X-foo1: bar1\x0D\x0A" -H "X-foo2: bar2\x0D\x0A"
    

Cloud

MoSh command: cloud

nRF Cloud is a platform for providing, among other things, various location services. Modem Shell enables you to establish an MQTT connection to nRF Cloud using the nRF Cloud library. Currently, the cloud command is useful mostly when using the location services and MQTT is the desired transport protocol. However, you can use any nRF Cloud services once the MQTT connection is established.

Examples

  • Establish the connection to nRF Cloud, request the cell-based location of the device, and disconnect when ready:

    cloud connect
    location get --method cellular
    cloud disconnect
    

Remote control using nRF Cloud

Once you have established an MQTT connection to nRF Cloud using the cloud command, you can use the Terminal window in the nRF Cloud portal to execute MoSh commands to the device. This feature enables full remote control of the MoSh application running on a device that is connected to cloud. MoSh output, such as responses to commands and other notifications can be echoed to the messages endpoint and the Terminal window of the nRF Cloud portal. Use the print cloud command to enable this behavior. The data format of the input data in the Terminal window must be JSON.

Examples

  • Establish the connection to nRF Cloud:

    cloud connect
    
  • To request the device location, enter the following command in the Terminal window of the nRF Cloud portal:

    {"appId":"MODEM_SHELL", "data":"location get --method cellular"}
    

    The device location appears in the Location window.

  • An AT command is sent to the modem:

    {"appId":"MODEM_SHELL", "data":"at AT+COPS=1,2,\\\"24412\\\""}
    

    Note the syntax for escaping the quotation marks.

Configuration

See Configuring your application for information about how to permanently or temporarily change the configuration.

Configuration options

Check and configure the following configuration options for the sample:

CONFIG_MOSH_PING

Enable ping feature in modem shell.

CONFIG_MOSH_IPERF3

Enable iperf3 feature in modem shell.

CONFIG_MOSH_CURL

Enable curl feature in modem shell.

CONFIG_MOSH_SOCK

Enable socket tool feature in modem shell.

CONFIG_MOSH_SMS

Enable SMS feature in modem shell

CONFIG_MOSH_LOCATION

Enable Location tool in modem shell.

CONFIG_MOSH_GNSS

Enable GNSS feature in modem shell

CONFIG_MOSH_FOTA

Enable FOTA feature in modem shell

CONFIG_MOSH_PPP

Enable PPP feature in modem shell

CONFIG_MOSH_REST

Enable REST feature in modem shell

Note

You may not be able to use all features at the same time due to memory restrictions. To see which features are enabled simultaneously, check the configuration files and overlays.

Additional configuration

Check and configure the following library option that is used by the sample:

Building and running

This sample can be found under samples/nrf9160/modem_shell in the nRF Connect SDK folder structure.

When built as a non-secure firmware image for the _ns build target, the sample automatically includes the Trusted Firmware-M (TF-M). You can configure it to use the Secure Partition Manager instead of TF-M.

See Building and programming an application for information about how to build and program the application.

See Providing CMake options for instructions on how to provide CMake options, for example to use a configuration overlay.

DK buttons

The buttons have the following functions:

Button 1:

Raises a kill or abort signal. A long press of the button will kill or abort all supported running commands. You can abort commands iperf3 (also with th), curl, ping and sock send.

Button 2:

Enables or disables the UARTs for power consumption measurements. Toggles between UARTs enabled and disabled.

LED indications

The LEDs have the following functions:

LED 1:

Indicates the LTE registration status.

Testing

After programming the application and all prerequisites to your development kit, test it by performing the following steps:

  1. Connect the development kit to the computer using a USB cable. The development kit is assigned a COM port (Windows) or ttyACM device (Linux), which is visible in the Device Manager.

  2. Create a serial connection to the development kit (J-Link COM port) with a terminal that supports VT100/ANSI escape characters using the following settings:

    • Hardware flow control: disabled

    • Baud rate: 115200

    • Parity bit: no

  3. Reset the development kit.

  4. Observe in the terminal window that the application starts. This is indicated by output similar to the following (there is also a lot of additional information about the LTE connection):

    *** Booting Zephyr OS build v2.4.99-ncs1-3525-g4d068de3f50f  ***
    
    MOSH version:       v1.5.0-649-g7e657c2fab02
    MOSH build id:      152
    MOSH build variant: normal
    
    Initializing modemlib...
    
    Initialized modemlib
    Network registration status: searching
    Network registration status: Connected - home network
    mosh:~$
    
  5. Type any of the commands listed in the Overview section to the terminal. When you type only the command, the terminal shows the usage, for example sock.

Getting nRF9160 DK out-of-the-box and to nRF Cloud

To program the certificates and connect to nRF Cloud, complete the following steps:

  1. Download nRF Connect for Desktop.

  2. Update the modem firmware on the on-board modem of the nRF9160 DK to the latest version as instructed in Updating the modem firmware.

  3. Build and program the MoSh to the nRF9160 DK using the default MoSh configuration (with REST as the transport):

    $ west build -p -b nrf9160dk_nrf9160_ns -d build
    $ west flash -d build
    
  4. Get certificates from nRF Cloud as explained in Downloading the nRF Cloud certificate.

  5. In the MoSH terminal, power off the modem and start the AT command mode:

    mosh:~$ link funmode -0
    mosh:~$ at at_cmd_mode start
    
  6. Disconnect the MoSh terminal.

  7. Connect and use LTE Link Monitor to store the certificates to the modem (default nRF Cloud security tag).

    See Managing credentials in the LTE Link Monitor user guide for instructions.

  8. Reconnect the MoSh terminal and press ctrl-x and ctrl-q to exit the AT command mode.

  9. Set the modem to normal mode to activate LTE:

    mosh:~$ link funmode -1
    

    Observe that LTE is getting connected.

  10. Perform just-in-time provisioning (JITP) with nRF Cloud through REST:

    mosh:~$ cloud_rest jitp
    

    You only need to do this once for each device.

  11. Follow the instructions for JITP printed in the MoSh terminal.

  12. Complete the user association:

    1. Open the nRF Cloud portal.

    2. Click the large plus sign in the upper left corner.

    3. Enter the device ID from MoSh in the Device ID field.

    When the device has been added, the message Device added to account. Waiting for it to connect… appears. When the message disappears, click Devices on the left side menu. Your MoSh device is now visible in the list.

  13. Send MoSh device information to nRF Cloud:

    mosh:~$ cloud_rest shadow_update
    

    It might take a while for the data to appear in the nRF Cloud UI.

  14. Use the location command to verify that the REST transport to nRF Cloud is working.

    mosh:~$ location get --method cellular
    
  15. As a success response, the location is printed in the MoSh terminal.

  16. Open the entry for your device in the Devices view.

  17. Observe that location and device information are shown in the device page.

ESP8266 Wi-Fi support

To build the MoSh sample with ESP8266 Wi-Fi chip support, use the -DDTC_OVERLAY_FILE=esp_8266_nrf9160ns.overlay and -DOVERLAY_CONFIG=overlay-esp-wifi.conf options. For example:

west build -p -b nrf9160dk_nrf9160_ns -d build -- -DDTC_OVERLAY_FILE=esp_8266_nrf9160ns.overlay -DOVERLAY_CONFIG=overlay-esp-wifi.conf

See Providing CMake options for more instructions on how to add these options.

PPP support

To build the MoSh sample with PPP/dial up support, use the -DDTC_OVERLAY_FILE=ppp.overlay and -DOVERLAY_CONFIG=overlay-ppp.conf options. For example:

west build -p -b nrf9160dk_nrf9160_ns -- -DDTC_OVERLAY_FILE=ppp.overlay -DOVERLAY_CONFIG=overlay-ppp.conf

After programming the development kit, test it in the Linux environment by performing the following steps:

  1. Connect the development kit to the computer using a USB cable. The development kit is assigned a ttyACM device (Linux).

  2. Open a serial connection to the development kit (/dev/ttyACM2) with a terminal that supports VT100/ANSI escape characters (for example PuTTY).

  3. Reset the development kit.

  4. Observe in the terminal window that the MoSh starts with the PPP support. This is indicated by output similar to the following (there is also a lot of additional information about the LTE connection):

    Network registration status: searching
    Network registration status: Connected - home network
    Default PDN is active: starting PPP automatically
    PPP: started
    mosh:~$
    
  5. Enter command``ppp uartconf`` that results in the following UART configuration:

    mosh:~$ ppp uartconf -r
    PPP uart configuration:
      baudrate:     921600
      flow control: RTS_CTS
      parity:       none
      data bits:    bits8
      stop bits:    bits1
    mosh:~$
    
  6. In a Linux terminal, enter the following command to start the PPP connection:

    $ sudo pppd -detach /dev/ttyACM0 921600 noauth crtscts noccp novj nodeflate nobsdcomp local debug +ipv6 ipv6cp-use-ipaddr usepeerdns noipdefault defaultroute ipv6cp-restart 5 ipcp-restart 5 lcp-echo-interval 0
    
  7. In a MoSh terminal, observe that the PPP connection is created:

    Dial up (IPv6) connection up
    Dial up (IPv4) connection up
    mosh:~$
    
  8. Now, you are ready to browse Internet in Linux by using the MoSh PPP dial-up over LTE connection.

Application FOTA support

To build the MoSh sample with application FOTA support, use the -DOVERLAY_CONFIG=overlay-app_fota.conf option. For example:

west build -p -b nrf9160dk_nrf9160_ns -d build -- -DOVERLAY_CONFIG=overlay-app_fota.conf

LwM2M carrier library support

To build the MoSh sample with LwM2M carrier library support, use the -DOVERLAY_CONFIG=overlay-lwm2m_carrier.conf option. For example:

west build -p -b nrf9160dk_nrf9160_ns -d build -- -DOVERLAY_CONFIG=overlay-lwm2m_carrier.conf

P-GPS support

To build the MoSh sample with P-GPS support, use the -DOVERLAY_CONFIG=overlay-pgps.conf option. For example:

west build -p -b nrf9160dk_nrf9160_ns -d build -- -DOVERLAY_CONFIG=overlay-pgps.conf

Cloud over MQTT

To build the MoSh sample with cloud connectivity, use the -DOVERLAY_CONFIG=overlay-cloud_mqtt.conf option. For example:

west build -p -b nrf9160dk_nrf9160_ns -d build -- -DOVERLAY_CONFIG=overlay-cloud_mqtt.conf

Remote control using nRF Cloud over MQTT

To enable the remote control feature, you need to build the sample with cloud connectivity, see Cloud over MQTT.

Zephyr native TCP/IP stack usage over nRF9160 LTE connection

To build the MoSh sample with the nRF91 device driver that is not offloading the TCP/IP stack to modem, use the -DOVERLAY_CONFIG=overlay-non-offloading.conf option. When running this configuration, the configured MoSh commands, for example iperf3, are using Zephyr native TCP/IP stack over nRF9160 LTE connection in default PDN context.

For example:

west build -p -b nrf9160dk_nrf9160_ns -- -DOVERLAY_CONFIG=overlay-non-offloading.conf

References

Dependencies

This sample uses the following nRF Connect SDK libraries:

This sample uses the following sdk-nrfxlib libraries: