AWS IoT

The Amazon Web Services Internet-of-Things (AWS IoT) library enables applications to connect to, and exchange messages with the AWS IoT message broker. The library supports the following technologies:

  • TLS secured MQTT transmission protocol

  • Firmware-Over-The-Air (FOTA)

Note

For more information regarding AWS FOTA, see the documentation on AWS FOTA library and nRF9160: AWS FOTA sample. This library and the AWS FOTA library share common steps related to AWS IoT console management.

Setting up a connection to AWS IoT

Setting up a secure MQTTS connection to the AWS IoT message broker consists of the following steps:

  1. Creating a Thing

  2. Generating a CA certificate.

  3. Flashing the certificates to the on-board modem of the nRF9160 based board.

  4. Configuring the library options.

For more information on creating a thing in AWS IoT and generating the certificate, see Creating a thing in AWS IoT.

Note

The default name used for the thing by the AWS IoT library is my-thing.

Flashing the certificates to the on-board modem of the nRF9160 based board

  1. Download nRF Connect for Desktop

  2. Update the modem firmware on the on-board modem of the nRF9160 based board to the latest version by following the steps in Updating the nRF9160 DK cellular modem.

  3. Build and program the nRF9160: AT Client sample to the nRF9160 based board as explained in Building and programming a sample application.

  4. Launch the LTE Link Monitor application, which is implemented as part of nRF Connect for Desktop.

  5. Click Certificate manager located at the top right corner.

  6. Copy and paste the certificates, downloaded earlier from AWS IoT, into the respective entries (CA certificate, Client certificate, Private key).

  7. Select a desired security tag and click Update certificates.

Note

The default security tag 16842753 is reserved for the nRF Cloud.

Configuring library options

To configure the library options, complete the following steps:

  1. In the AWS IoT console, navigate to IoT core -> Manage -> things and click on the entry for the thing, created during the steps of Creating a thing in AWS IoT.

  2. Navigate to interact, find the Rest API Endpoint and set the configurable option CONFIG_AWS_IOT_BROKER_HOST_NAME to this address.

  3. Set the option CONFIG_AWS_IOT_CLIENT_ID_STATIC to the name of the thing created during the aforementioned steps.

  4. Set the security tag configuration CONFIG_AWS_IOT_SEC_TAG to the security tag, chosen while Flashing the certificates to the on-board modem of the nRF9160 based board.

Initializing

The module is initialized by calling the aws_iot_init() function. If this API fails, the application must not use any APIs of the module.

Connecting

Note

The API requires that a configuration structure aws_iot_config is declared in the application and passed into the aws_iot_init() and aws_iot_connect() functions. This exposes the application to the MQTT socket used for the connection, which is polled on, in the application. It also enables the application to pass in a client id (thingname) at runtime.

After initialization, the aws_iot_connect() function must be called, to connect to the AWS IoT broker. If the API fails, the application must retry the connection. During an attempt to connect to the AWS Iot broker, the library tries to establish a connection using a TLS handshake. This can take some time, usually in the span of seconds. For the duration of the TLS handshake, the API blocks.

After a successful connection, the API subscribes to AWS IoT Shadow topics and application specific topics, depending on the configuration of the library.

Polling on MQTT socket

After a successful return of aws_iot_connect() function, the MQTT socket must be polled on, in addition to the periodic calls to aws_iot_ping() (to keep the connection to the AWS IoT broker alive) and aws_iot_input() (to get the data from the AWS IoT broker).

The code section below demonstrates how socket polling can be done in the main application after the aws_iot_init() function has been called. Connection polling can also be enabled in the AWS IoT backend by setting the configurable option CONFIG_AWS_IOT_CONNECTION_POLL_THREAD. Note that if this option is enabled, you need not include the following section of code in main.c

connect:
   err = aws_iot_connect(&config);
   if (err) {
      printk("aws_iot_connect failed: %d\n", err);
   }

   struct pollfd fds[] = {
      {
         .fd = config.socket,
         .events = POLLIN
      }
   };

   while (true) {
      err = poll(fds, ARRAY_SIZE(fds),
         K_SECONDS(CONFIG_MQTT_KEEPALIVE / 3));

      if (err < 0) {
         printk("poll() returned an error: %d\n", err);
         continue;
      }

      if (err == 0) {
         aws_iot_ping();
         continue;
      }

      if ((fds[0].revents & POLLIN) == POLLIN) {
         aws_iot_input();
      }

      if ((fds[0].revents & POLLNVAL) == POLLNVAL) {
         printk("Socket error: POLLNVAL\n");
         printk("The AWS IoT socket was unexpectedly closed.\n");
         return;
      }

      if ((fds[0].revents & POLLHUP) == POLLHUP) {
         printk("Socket error: POLLHUP\n");
         printk("Connection was closed by the AWS IoT broker.\n");
         return;
      }

      if ((fds[0].revents & POLLERR) == POLLERR) {
         printk("Socket error: POLLERR\n");
         printk("AWS IoT broker connection was unexpectedly closed.\n");
         return;
      }
}

Configuration

To subscribe to AWS shadow topics, set the following options:

To subscribe to non AWS specific topics, specify the number of additional topics that needs to be subscribed to, by setting the following option:

Note

The aws_iot_subscription_topics_add() function must be called with a list containing application topics, after calling aws_iot_init() and before calling aws_iot_connect() .

To connect to the AWS IoT broker, set the following mandatory options (specified in the Configuring library options section):

To enable the application to optionally pass a client id at runtime, set the client_id entry in the aws_iot_config structure passed in the aws_iot_init() function and set the following option:

Note

By default, the library uses the static configurable option CONFIG_AWS_IOT_CLIENT_ID_STATIC for the client id.

Note

The AWS IoT library is compatible with the generic cloud_api library, a generic API that supports interchangeable cloud backends, statically and at runtime.

API documentation

Header file: include/net/aws_iot.h
Source files: subsys/net/lib/aws_iot/src/
group aws_iot

Library to connect the device to the AWS IoT message broker.

Typedefs

typedef void (*aws_iot_evt_handler_t)(const struct aws_iot_evt *evt)

AWS IoT library asynchronous event handler.

Parameters
  • [in] evt: The event and any associated parameters.

Enums

enum aws_iot_topic_type

AWS IoT shadow topics, used in messages to specify which shadow topic that will be published to.

Values:

AWS_IOT_SHADOW_TOPIC_UNKNOWN = 0x0
AWS_IOT_SHADOW_TOPIC_GET
AWS_IOT_SHADOW_TOPIC_UPDATE
AWS_IOT_SHADOW_TOPIC_DELETE
enum aws_disconnect_result

@ AWS broker disconnect results.

Values:

AWS_IOT_DISCONNECT_USER_REQUEST
AWS_IOT_DISCONNECT_CLOSED_BY_REMOTE
AWS_IOT_DISCONNECT_INVALID_REQUEST
AWS_IOT_DISCONNECT_MISC
AWS_IOT_DISCONNECT_COUNT
enum aws_connect_result

AWS broker connect results.

Values:

AWS_IOT_CONNECT_RES_SUCCESS = 0
AWS_IOT_CONNECT_RES_ERR_NOT_INITD = -1
AWS_IOT_CONNECT_RES_ERR_INVALID_PARAM = -2
AWS_IOT_CONNECT_RES_ERR_NETWORK = -3
AWS_IOT_CONNECT_RES_ERR_BACKEND = -4
AWS_IOT_CONNECT_RES_ERR_MISC = -5
AWS_IOT_CONNECT_RES_ERR_NO_MEM = -6
AWS_IOT_CONNECT_RES_ERR_PRV_KEY = -7
AWS_IOT_CONNECT_RES_ERR_CERT = -8
AWS_IOT_CONNECT_RES_ERR_CERT_MISC = -9
AWS_IOT_CONNECT_RES_ERR_TIMEOUT_NO_DATA = -10
AWS_IOT_CONNECT_RES_ERR_ALREADY_CONNECTED = -11
enum aws_iot_evt_type

AWS IoT notification event types, used to signal the application.

Values:

AWS_IOT_EVT_CONNECTING = 0x1

Connecting to AWS IoT broker.

AWS_IOT_EVT_CONNECTED

Connected to AWS IoT broker.

AWS_IOT_EVT_READY

AWS IoT library has subscribed to all configured topics.

AWS_IOT_EVT_DISCONNECTED

Disconnected to AWS IoT broker.

AWS_IOT_EVT_DATA_RECEIVED

Data received from AWS message broker.

AWS_IOT_EVT_FOTA_START

FOTA update start.

AWS_IOT_EVT_FOTA_DONE

FOTA update done, request to reboot.

AWS_IOT_EVT_FOTA_ERASE_PENDING

FOTA erase pending.

AWS_IOT_EVT_FOTA_ERASE_DONE

FOTA erase done.

AWS_IOT_EVT_FOTA_DL_PROGRESS

FOTA progress notification.

AWS_IOT_EVT_ERROR

AWS IoT library error.

Functions

int aws_iot_init(const struct aws_iot_config *const config, aws_iot_evt_handler_t event_handler)

Initialize the module.

Warning

This API must be called exactly once, and it must return successfully.

Return

0 If successful. Otherwise, a (negative) error code is returned.

Parameters
  • [in] config: Pointer to struct containing connection parameters.

  • [in] event_handler: Pointer to event handler to receive AWS IoT module events.

int aws_iot_connect(struct aws_iot_config *const config)

Connect to the AWS IoT broker.

This function exposes the MQTT socket to main so that it can be polled on.

Return

0 If successful. Otherwise, a (negative) error code is returned.

Parameters
  • [out] config: Pointer to struct containing connection parameters, the MQTT connection socket number will be copied to the socket entry of the struct.

int aws_iot_disconnect(void)

Disconnect from the AWS IoT broker.

Return

0 If successful. Otherwise, a (negative) error code is returned.

int aws_iot_send(const struct aws_iot_data *const tx_data)

Send data to AWS IoT broker.

Return

0 If successful. Otherwise, a (negative) error code is returned.

Parameters
  • [in] tx_data: Pointer to struct containing data to be transmitted to the AWS IoT broker.

int aws_iot_input(void)

Get data from AWS IoT broker.

Return

0 If successful. Otherwise, a (negative) error code is returned.

int aws_iot_ping(void)

Ping AWS IoT broker. Must be called periodically to keep connection to broker alive.

Return

0 If successful. Otherwise, a (negative) error code is returned.

int aws_iot_subscription_topics_add(const struct aws_iot_topic_data *const topic_list, size_t list_count)

Add a list of application specific topics that will be subscribed to upon connection to AWS IoT broker.

Return

0 If successful. Otherwise, a (negative) error code is returned.

Parameters
  • [in] topic_list: Pointer to list of topics.

  • [in] list_count: Number of entries in the list.

struct aws_iot_topic_data
#include <aws_iot.h>

AWS IoT topic data.

Public Members

aws_iot_topic_type type

Type of shadow topic that will be published to.

const char *str

Pointer to string of application specific topic.

size_t len

Length of application specific topic.

struct aws_iot_app_topic_data
#include <aws_iot.h>

Structure used to declare a list of application specific topics passed in by the application.

Public Members

struct mqtt_topic list[CONFIG_AWS_IOT_APP_SUBSCRIPTION_LIST_COUNT]

List of application specific topics.

size_t list_count

Number of entries in topic list.

struct aws_iot_data
#include <aws_iot.h>

AWS IoT transmission data.

Public Members

struct aws_iot_topic_data topic

Topic data is sent/received on.

char *ptr

Pointer to data sent/received from the AWS IoT broker.

size_t len

Length of data.

mqtt_qos qos

Quality of Service of the message.

struct aws_iot_evt
#include <aws_iot.h>

Struct with data received from AWS IoT broker.

Public Members

aws_iot_evt_type type

Type of event.

int fota_progress

FOTA progress in percentage.

struct aws_iot_config
#include <aws_iot.h>

Structure for AWS IoT broker connection parameters.

Public Members

int socket

Socket for AWS IoT broker connection

char *client_id

Client id for AWS IoT broker connection, used when CONFIG_AWS_IOT_CLIENT_ID_APP is set. If not set an internal configurable static client id is used.

size_t client_id_len

Length of client_id string.