nRF Desktop

The nRF Desktop is a reference design of a Human Interface Device (HID) that is connected to a host through Bluetooth® Low Energy or USB, or both. Depending on the configuration, this application can work as desktop mouse, gaming mouse, keyboard, or connection dongle. See nRF Desktop reference design page for an overview of supported features.

Tip

To get started with hardware that has pre-configured software, go to the User interface section.

The nRF Desktop application supports common input hardware interfaces like motion sensors, rotation sensors, and buttons scanning module. You can configure the firmware at runtime using a dedicated configuration channel established with the HID feature report. The same channel is used to transmit DFU packets.

Overview: Firmware architecture

The nRF Desktop application design aims at high performance, while still providing configurability and extensibility.

The application architecture is modular, event-driven and build around Common Application Framework. This means that parts of the application functionality are separated into isolated modules that communicate with each other using application events, which are handled by the Application Event Manager. Modules register themselves as listeners of those events that they are configured to react to. An application event can be submitted by multiple modules and it can have multiple listeners.

Module and component overview

The following figure shows the nRF Desktop modules and how they relate with other components and the Application Event Manager. The figure does not present all the available modules. For example, the figure does not include the modules that are used as hotfixes or only for debug or profiling purposes.

nRF Desktop high-level design (overview)

Application high-level design overview

For more information about each of nRF Desktop modules, see the Application internal modules section.

Module event tables

The documentation page of each application module includes a table that shows the event-based communication for the module.

Source Module

Input Event

This Module

Output Event

Sink Module

The module that submits eventA.

eventA

The module described by the table.

Other module that submits eventA.

The module that submits eventB.

eventB

eventC

The module that reacts on eventC.

Each module event table contains the following columns:

Source Module

The module that submits a given application event. Some of these events can have many listeners or sources. These are listed on the Source and sink module lists page.

Input Event

An application event that is received by the module described by the table.

This Module

The module described by the table. This is the module that is the target of the Input Events and the source of Output Events directed to the Sink Modules.

Output Event

An application event that is submitted by the module described by the table.

Sink Module

The module that reacts on the application event. Some of these events can have many listeners or sources. These are listed on the Source and sink module lists page.

Note

Some application modules can have multiple implementations (for example, Motion module). In such case, the table shows the Application Event Manager events received and submitted by all implementations of a given application module.

Module usage per hardware type

Since the application architecture is uniform and the code is shared, the set of modules in use depends on the selected device role. A different set of modules is enabled when the application is working as mouse, keyboard, or dongle. In other words, not all of the Application internal modules need to be enabled for a given reference design.

Gaming mouse module set

The following figure shows the modules that are enabled when the application is working as a gaming mouse:

nRF Desktop high-level design (gaming mouse)

Application configured as a gaming mouse

Desktop mouse module set

The following figure shows the modules that are enabled when the application is working as a desktop mouse:

nRF Desktop high-level design (desktop mouse)

Application configured as a desktop mouse

Keyboard module set

The following figure shows the modules that are enabled when the application is working as a keyboard:

nRF Desktop high-level design (keyboard)

Application configured as a keyboard

Dongle module set

The following figure shows the modules that are enabled when the application is working as a dongle:

nRF Desktop high-level design (dongle)

Application configured as a dongle

Thread usage

The application limits the number of threads in use to the minimum and does not use the user-space threads.

The following threads are kept running in the application:

  • System-related threads
    • Idle thread

    • System workqueue thread

    • Logger thread (when Logging is enabled)

    • Shell thread (when Shell is enabled)

    • Threads related to Bluetooth® LE (the exact number depends on the selected Link Layer)

  • Application-related threads
    • Motion sensor thread (running only on mouse)

    • Settings loading thread (enabled by default only on keyboard)

    • QoS data sampling thread (running only if Bluetooth® LE QoS feature is enabled)

Most of the application activity takes place in the context of the system work queue thread, either through scheduled work objects or through the Application Event Manager callbacks (executed from the system workqueue thread). Because of this, the application does not need to handle resource protection. The only exception are places where the interaction with interrupts or multiple threads cannot be avoided.

Memory allocation

Most of memory resources that are used by the application are allocated statically.

The application uses dynamic allocation to:

When configuring HEAP, make sure that the values for the following options match the typical event size and the system needs:

Important

The nRF Desktop uses k_heap as the backend for dynamic allocation. This backend is used by default in Zephyr. For more information, refer to Zephyr’s documentation about Memory Heaps.

HID data handling

The nRF Desktop device and the host can exchange HID data using one of the following HID report types:

  • HID input report

  • HID output report

  • HID feature report

The nRF Desktop application uses all of these report types. See sections below for details about handling given HID report type.

HID input reports

The nRF Desktop application uses HID input reports to transmit information about user input from the nRF Desktop device to a host. The user input can be, for example, button press or mouse motion.

The nRF Desktop supports the following HID input reports:

  • HID mouse report

  • HID keyboard report

  • HID consumer control report

  • HID system control report

Every of these reports uses predefined report format and provides the given information. For example, the mouse motion is forwarded as HID mouse report.

An nRF Desktop device supports the selected subset of the HID input reports. For example, the nRF Desktop keyboard reference design (nrf52kbd_nrf52832) supports HID keyboard report, HID consumer control report and HID system control report.

As an example, the following section describes handling HID mouse report data.

HID mouse report handling

The nRF Desktop mouse sends HID input reports to the host after the host connects and subscribes for the HID reports.

The Motion module sensor sampling is synchronized with sending the HID mouse input reports to the host.

The Wheel module and CAF: Buttons module provide data to the HID state module when the mouse wheel is used or a button is pressed, respectively. These inputs are not synchronized with the HID report transmission to the host.

When the mouse is constantly in use, the motion module is kept in the fetching state. In this state, the nRF Desktop mouse forwards the data from the motion sensor to the host in the following way:

  1. USB state (or Bluetooth HIDS) sends a HID mouse report to the host and submits hid_report_sent_event.

  2. The event triggers sampling of the motion sensor.

  3. A dedicated thread is used to fetch the sample from the sensor.

  4. After the sample is fetched, the thread forwards it to the HID state module as motion_event.

  5. The HID state module updates the HID report data, generates new HID input report, and submits it as hid_report_event.

  6. The HID report data is forwarded to the host either by the USB state module or by the HID Service module. The USB state has precedence if the USB is connected.

  7. When the HID input report is sent to the host, hid_report_sent_event is submitted. The motion sensor sample is triggered and the sequence repeats.

If the device is connected through Bluetooth, the HID state module uses a pipeline that consists of two HID reports, which it creates upon receiving the first motion_event. The HID state module submits two hid_report_event events. Sending the first event to the host triggers the motion sensor sample.

For the Bluetooth connections, submitting hid_report_sent_event is delayed by one Bluetooth connection interval. Because of this delay, the HID Service module requires pipeline of two HID reports to make sure that data is sent on every connection event. Such solution is necessary to achieve high report rate.

If there is no motion data for the predefined number of samples, the Motion module goes to the idle state. This is done to reduce the power consumption. When a motion is detected, the module switches back to the fetching state.

The following diagram shows the data exchange between the application modules. To keep it simple, the diagram only shows data related to HID input reports that are sent after the host is connected and the HID subscriptions are enabled.

nRF Desktop mouse HID data sensing and transmission

nRF Desktop mouse HID data sensing and transmission

HID output reports

HID output reports are used to transmit data from host to an nRF Desktop device. The nRF Desktop supports the HID keyboard LED report. The report is used by the host to update the state of the keyboard LEDs, for example to indicate that the Caps Lock key is active.

Note

Only the nrf52840dk_nrf52840 in keyboard configuration has hardware LEDs that can be used to display the Caps Lock and Num Lock state.

The following diagrams show the HID output report data exchange between the application modules.

  • Scenario 1: Peripheral connected directly to the host

    HID output report: Data handling and transmission between host and peripheral

    HID output report: Data handling and transmission between host and peripheral

    In this scenario, the HID output report is sent from the host to the peripheral either through Bluetooth or the USB connection. Depending on the connection, the HID report is received by the HID Service module or USB state module, respectively. The module then sends the HID output report as hid_report_event to the HID state module, which keeps track of the HID output report states and updates state of the hardware LEDs by sending led_event to LEDs module.

  • Scenario 2: Dongle intermediates between the host and the peripheral

    HID output report: Data handling and transmission between host and peripheral through dongle

    HID output report: Data handling and transmission between host and peripheral through dongle

    In this scenario, the HID output report is sent from the host to the dongle using the USB connection and is received by the USB state module. The destination module then sends the HID output report as hid_report_event to the HID forward module, which sends it to the peripheral using Bluetooth.

HID feature reports

HID feature reports are used to transmit data between the host and an nRF Desktop device (in both directions). The nRF Desktop uses only one HID feature report: the user config report. The report is used by the Configuration channel.

Note

The nRF Desktop also uses a dedicated HID output report to forward the Configuration channel data through the nRF Desktop dongle. This report is handled using the configuration channel’s infrastructure and it can be enabled using CONFIG_DESKTOP_CONFIG_CHANNEL_OUT_REPORT. See the Kconfig option’s help for details about the report.

HID protocols

The following HID protocols are supported by nRF Desktop for HID input reports and HID output reports:

  • Report protocol - Most widely used in HID devices. When establishing connection, host reads a HID descriptor from the HID device. HID descriptor describes format of HID reports and is used by the host to interpret data exchanged between HID device and host.

  • Boot protocol - Only available for mice and keyboards data. No HID descriptor is used for this HID protocol. Instead, fixed data packet formats must be used to send data between the HID device and the host.

Requirements

The nRF Desktop application supports several development kits related to the following hardware reference designs. Depending on what development kit you use, you need to select the respective configuration file and build type.

nRF Desktop gaming mouse (top view)

Hardware platforms

PCA

Board name

Build target

nRF52840 Gaming Mouse

PCA20041

nrf52840gmouse_nrf52840

nrf52840gmouse_nrf52840

The application is designed to allow easy porting to new hardware. Check Integrating your own hardware for details.

nRF Desktop build types

The nRF Desktop application does not use a single prj.conf file. Before you start testing the application, you can select one of the build types supported by the application. Not every board supports all of the mentioned build types.

See Custom build types and Configuring build types for more information about this feature of the nRF Connect SDK.

The application supports the following build types:

nRF Desktop build types

Build type

File name

Supported board

Description

Debug (default)

prj.conf

All from Requirements

Debug version of the application; the same as the release build type, but with debug options enabled.

Release

prj_release.conf

All from Requirements

Release version of the application with no debugging features.

Debug Fast Pair

prj_fast_pair.conf

nrf52840dk_nrf52840, nrf52840gmouse_nrf52840

Debug version of the application with Fast Pair support.

Release Fast Pair

prj_release_fast_pair.conf

nrf52kbd_nrf52832, nrf52840gmouse_nrf52840

Release version of the application with Fast Pair support.

Dongle

prj_dongle.conf

nrf52840dk_nrf52840

Debug version of the application that lets you generate the application with the dongle role.

Keyboard

prj_keyboard.conf

nrf52840dk_nrf52840

Debug version of the application that lets you generate the application with the keyboard role.

MCUboot QSPI

prj_mcuboot_qspi.conf

nrf52840dk_nrf52840

Debug version of the application that uses MCUboot with the secondary slot in the external QSPI FLASH.

MCUboot SMP

prj_mcuboot_smp.conf

nrf52840dk_nrf52840, nrf52840gmouse_nrf52840

Debug version of the application that enables MCUmgr with DFU support and offers support for the MCUboot DFU procedure over SMP.
See the Background Device Firmware Upgrade section for more information.

WWCB

prj_wwcb.conf

nrf52840dk_nrf52840

Debug version of the application with the support for the B0 bootloader enabled for Works With ChromeBook (WWCB).

Triple Bluetooth® LE connection

prj_3bleconn.conf

nrf52840dongle_nrf52840

Debug version of the application with the support for up to three simultaneous Bluetooth® LE connections.

Quadruple LLPM connection

prj_4llpmconn.conf

nrf52840dongle_nrf52840

Debug version of the application with the support for up to four simultaneous Bluetooth® LE connections, in Low Latency Packet Mode.

Release quadruple LLPM connection

prj_release_4llpmconn.conf

nrf52840dongle_nrf52840

Release version of the application with the support for up to four simultaneous Bluetooth® LE connections, in Low Latency Packet Mode.

Note

Bootloader-enabled configurations with support for serial recovery DFU or background DFU are set as default if they fit in non-volatile memory. See nRF Desktop board configuration files for details about which boards have bootloader included in their default configuration.

See Integrating your own hardware for detailed information about the application configuration and how to create build type files for your hardware.

User interface

The nRF Desktop configuration files have a set of preprogrammed options bound to different parts of the hardware. These options are related to the functionalities discussed in this section.

Turning devices on and off

The nRF Desktop hardware reference designs are equipped with hardware switches to turn the device on and off. See the following figures for the exact location of these switches:

nRF Desktop gaming mouse (bottom view)

The switch is located at the bottom of the gaming mouse, close to the optical sensor. The mouse uses this switch also for changing dongle and Bluetooth LE peers, as described in the Bluetooth LE peer control section.

Connectability

The nRF Desktop devices provide user input to the host in the same way as other mice and keyboards, using connection through USB or Bluetooth LE.

The nRF Desktop devices support additional operations, like firmware upgrade or configuration change. The support is implemented through the Configuration channel. The host can use dedicated Python scripts to exchange the data with an nRF Desktop peripheral. For detailed information, see HID configurator for nRF Desktop.

To save power, the behavior of a device can change in time. For more information, see the Power management section.

Connection through USB

The nRF Desktop devices use the USB HID class. No additional software or drivers are required.

nRF Desktop gaming mouse (top view)

The gaming mouse has the USB connector slot located below the scroll wheel. The connector should slide in the socket along the cut in the mouse base.

Gaming mouse, dongle, and DK support the HID data transmission through USB.

Gaming mouse USB

The gaming mouse can send HID data when connected through USB. When the device is connected both wirelessly and through USB at the same time, it provides input only through the USB connection. If the device is disconnected from USB, it automatically switches to sending the data wirelessly using Bluetooth LE.

The gaming mouse is a battery-powered device. When it is connected through USB, charging of the rechargeable batteries starts.

Dongle USB

The nRF Desktop dongle works as a bridge between the devices connected through standard Bluetooth® Low Energy or Low Latency Packet Mode and the host connected through USB. It receives data wirelessly from the connected peripherals and forwards the data to the host.

The nRF Desktop dongle is powered directly through USB.

DK USB

The DK functionality depends on the application configuration. Depending on the selected configuration options, it can work as a mouse, keyboard, or a dongle.

Connection through Bluetooth LE

When turned on, the nRF Desktop peripherals are advertising until they go to the suspended state or connect through Bluetooth. The peripheral supports one wireless connection at a time, but it can be bonded with multiple peers.

Note

To simplify pairing the nRF Desktop peripherals with Windows 10 hosts, the peripherals include Swift Pair payload in the Bluetooth LE advertising data. By default, the Swift Pair payload is included for all of the Bluetooth local identities, apart from the dedicated local identity used for connection with an nRF Desktop dongle.

Some of the nRF Desktop configurations also include Fast Pair payload in the Bluetooth LE advertising data to simplify pairing the nRF Desktop peripherals with Android hosts. These configurations apply further modifications that are needed to improve the user experience. See the Fast Pair documentation section for details.

The nRF Desktop Bluetooth Central device scans for all bonded peripherals that are not connected. Right after entering the scanning state, the scanning operation is uninterruptable for a predefined time (CONFIG_DESKTOP_BLE_FORCED_SCAN_DURATION_S) to speed up connection establishment with Bluetooth Peripherals. After the timeout, the scanning is interrupted when any device connected to the dongle through Bluetooth comes in use. A connected peripheral is considered in use when it provides HID input reports. Continuing the scanning in such scenario would cause report rate drop.

The scanning starts automatically when one of the bonded peers disconnects. It also takes place periodically when a known peer is not connected.

The peripheral connection can be based on standard Bluetooth LE connection parameters or on Bluetooth LE with Low Latency Packet Mode (LLPM).

LLPM is a proprietary Bluetooth extension from Nordic Semiconductor. It can be used only if it is supported by both connected devices (desktop mice do not support it). LLPM enables sending data with high report rate (up to 1000 reports per second), which is not supported by the standard Bluetooth LE.

Bluetooth LE peer control

A connected Bluetooth LE peer device can be controlled using predefined buttons or button combinations. There are several peer operations available.

The application distinguishes between the following button press types:

  • Short - Button pressed for less than 0.5 seconds.

  • Standard - Button pressed for more than 0.5 seconds, but less than 5 seconds.

  • Long - Button pressed for more than 5 seconds.

  • Double - Button pressed twice in quick succession.

The peer operation states provide visual feedback through LEDs (if the device has LEDs). Each of the states is represented by separate LED color and effect. The LED colors and effects are described in the led_state_def.h file located in the board-specific directory in the application configuration directory.

The assignments of hardware interface elements depend on the device type.

The following predefined hardware interface elements are assigned to peer control operations for the gaming mouse:

Hardware switch
  • The switch is located next to the optical sensor.

nRF Desktop gaming mouse - bottom view

nRF Desktop gaming mouse - bottom view

  • You can set the switch in the following positions:

    • Top position: Select the dongle peer.

    • Middle position: Select the Bluetooth LE peers.

    • Bottom position: Mouse turned off.

When the dongle peer is selected, the peer control is disabled until the switch is set to another position.

Peer control button
  • The button is located on the left side of the mouse, in the thumb area.

nRF Desktop gaming mouse - side view

nRF Desktop gaming mouse - side view

  • Short-press to initialize the peer selection. (The LED1 changes color and starts blinking.) During the peer selection:

    1. Short-press to toggle between available peers. The LED1 changes color for each peer and keeps blinking.

    2. Double-press to confirm the peer selection. The peer is changed after the confirmation. LED1 stops blinking.

      Note

      A breathing LED indicates that the device has entered either scanning or advertising mode. This happens when the device is looking for a peer to connect to.

  • Long-press to initialize the peer erase. When LED1 starts blinking rapidly, double-press to confirm the operation. After the confirmation, Bluetooth advertising using a new local identity is started. When a new Bluetooth Central device successfully connects and bonds, the old bond is removed and the new bond is used instead. If the new peer does not connect in the predefined period of time, the advertising ends and the application switches back to the old peer.

  • You can cancel the ongoing peer operation with a standard button press.

System state indication

When available, one of the LEDs is used to indicate the state of the device. This system state LED is kept on when the device is active.

nRF Desktop gaming mouse (top view)

The system state LED of the gaming mouse is located under the transparent section of the cover. The color of the LED changes when the device’s battery is being charged.

In case of a system error, the system state LED will start to blink rapidly for some time before the device is reset.

Debugging

Each of the nRF Desktop hardware reference designs has a slot for the dedicated debug board. See the following figures for the exact location of these slots.

nRF Desktop gaming mouse (top view)

The debug slot is located at the end of the gaming mouse, below the cover.

The boards that you can plug into these slots are shown below. The debug board can be used for programming the device (and powering it). The bypass boards are needed to make the device work when the debug board is not used. Their purpose is to close the circuits, which allows the device to be powered, for example during Testing.

nRF Desktop debug board

The device can be programmed using the J-Link. The J-Link connector slot is located on the top of the debug board.

Power management

Reducing power consumption is important for every battery-powered device.

The nRF Desktop peripherals are either suspended or powered off when they are not in use for a defined amount of time:

  • In the suspended state, the device maintains the active connection.

  • In the powered off state, the CPU is switched to the off mode.

In both cases, most of the functionalities are disabled. For example, LEDs are turned off and advertising is stopped.

Moving the mouse or pressing any button wakes up the device and turns on the disabled functionalities.

You can define the amount of time after which the peripherals are suspended or powered off in CONFIG_CAF_POWER_MANAGER_TIMEOUT. By default, this period is set to 120 seconds.

Important

When the gaming mouse is powered from USB, the power down timeout functionality is disabled.

If a nRF Desktop device supports remote wakeup, the USB connected device goes to suspended state when USB is suspended. The device can then trigger remote wakeup of the connected host on user input.

Configuration

See Configuring and building an application for information about how to permanently or temporarily change the configuration.

Adding nRF21540 EK shield support

The nRF Desktop application can be used with the nRF21540 EK shield, an RF front-end module (FEM) for the 2.4 GHz range extension. The shield can be used with any nRF Desktop HID application configured for a development kit that is fitted with Arduino-compatible connector (see the DK tab in Requirements). This means that the shield support is not available for nRF Desktop’s dedicated boards, such as nrf52840gmouse_nrf52840, nrf52kbd_nrf52832, or nrf52840dongle_nrf52840.

Low Latency Packet mode

The RF front-end module (FEM) cannot be used together with Low Latency Packet Mode (LLPM) due to timing requirements. The LLPM support in the nRF Desktop application (CONFIG_CAF_BLE_USE_LLPM) must be disabled for builds with FEM.

Building with EK shield support

To build the application with the shield support, pass the SHIELD parameter to the build command. Make sure to also disable the LLPM support. For example, you can build the application for nrf52840dk_nrf52840 with nrf21540ek shield using the following command:

west build -b nrf52840dk_nrf52840 -- -DSHIELD=nrf21540ek -DCONFIG_CAF_BLE_USE_LLPM=n

For the multi-core build, you need to pass the SHIELD parameter to images built on both application and network core. The network core controls the FEM, but the application core needs to forward the needed pins to the network core. Use hci_ipc_ as the childImageName parameter, because in the nRF Desktop application, network core runs using hci_ipc_. The command for nrf5340dk_nrf5340_cpuapp with nrf21540ek shield would look as follows:

west build -b nrf5340dk_nrf5340_cpuapp -- -DSHIELD=nrf21540ek_fwd -Dhci_ipc_SHIELD=nrf21540ek -DCONFIG_CAF_BLE_USE_LLPM=n

For detailed information about building an application using the nRF21540 EK, see the Programming section in the Working with RF Front-end modules documentation.

Building and running

The nRF Desktop application is built the same way to any other nRF Connect SDK application or sample.

This sample can be found under applications/nrf_desktop in the nRF Connect SDK folder structure.

To build the sample with Visual Studio Code, follow the steps listed on the How to build an application page in the nRF Connect for VS Code extension documentation. See Configuring and building an application for other building scenarios, Programming an application for programming steps, and Testing for general information about testing and debugging in the nRF Connect SDK.

Note

Information about the known issues in nRF Desktop can be found in nRF Connect SDK’s Release notes and on the Known issues page.

Selecting a build type

Before you start testing the application, you can select one of the nRF Desktop build types, depending on your development kit. See Configuring build types for detailed steps how to select a build type.

Note

If nRF Desktop is built with Fast Pair support, you must provide Fast Pair Model ID and Anti Spoofing private key as CMake options. You can use either your own provisioning data or the provisioning data obtained by Nordic Semiconductor for development purposes. The following debug devices are meant to be used with the nRF Desktop and have been registered:

  • NCS keyboard - The Fast Pair Provider meant to be used with keyboards:

    • Device Name: NCS keyboard

    • Model ID: 0x52FF02

    • Anti-Spoofing Private Key (base64, uncompressed): 8E8ulwhSIp/skZeg27xmWv2SxRxTOagypHrf2OdrhGY=

    • Device Type: Input Device

    • Notification Type: Fast Pair

    • Data-Only connection: true

    • No Personalized Name: false

  • NCS gaming mouse - Fast Pair Provider meant to be used with gaming mice:

    • Device Name: NCS gaming mouse

    • Model ID: 0x8E717D

    • Anti-Spoofing Private Key (base64, uncompressed): dZxFzP7X9CcfLPC0apyRkmgsh3n2EbWo9NFNXfVuxAM=

    • Device Type: Input Device

    • Notification Type: Fast Pair

    • Data-Only connection: true

    • No Personalized Name: false

See Provisioning the device documentation for the following information:

  • Registering a Fast Pair Provider

  • Provisioning a Fast Pair Provider in nRF Connect SDK

Important

This is the debug Fast Pair provisioning data obtained by Nordic for the development purposes. It should not be used in production.

To test with the debug mode Model ID, you must configure the Android device to include the debug results while displaying the nearby Fast Pair Providers. For details, see Verifying Fast Pair in the GFPS documentation.

Testing

The application can be built and tested in various configurations. The following procedure refers to the scenario where the gaming mouse (nRF52840 Gaming Mouse) and the keyboard (nRF52832 Desktop Keyboard) are connected simultaneously to the dongle (nRF52840 USB Dongle).

After building the application with or without specifying the build type, test the nRF Desktop application by performing the following steps:

  1. Program the required firmware to each device.

  2. Insert the debug board or bypass board into the mouse to make sure it is powered.

  3. Turn on both mouse and keyboard. LED1 on the keyboard and LED1 on the mouse start breathing.

  4. Plug the dongle to the USB port. The blue LED2 on the dongle starts breathing. This indicates that the dongle is scanning for peripherals.

  5. Wait for the establishment of the Bluetooth connection, which happens automatically. After the Bluetooth connection is established, the LEDs stop breathing and remain turned on. The devices can then be used simultaneously.

    Note

    You can manually start the scanning for new peripheral devices by pressing the SW1 button on the dongle for a short time. This might be needed if the dongle does not connect with all the peripherals before scanning is interrupted by a timeout.

  6. Move the mouse and press any key on the keyboard. The input is reflected on the host.

    Note

    When a configuration with debug features is enabled, for example logger and assertions, the gaming mouse report rate can be significantly lower.

    Make sure that you use the release configurations before testing the mouse report rate. For the release configurations, you should observe a 500-Hz report rate when both the mouse and the keyboard are connected and a 1000-Hz rate when only the mouse is connected.

  7. Switch the Bluetooth peer on the gaming mouse by pressing the Precise Aim button (see User interface). The color of LED1 changes from red to green and the LED starts blinking rapidly.

  8. Press the Precise Aim button twice quickly to confirm the selection. After the confirmation, LED1 starts breathing and the mouse starts the Bluetooth advertising.

  9. Connect to the mouse with an Android phone, a laptop, or any other Bluetooth Central.

After the connection is established and the device is bonded, you can use the mouse with the connected device.

Measuring HID report rate

You can measure a HID report rate of your application to assess the performance of your HID device. This measurement allows you to check how often the host computer can get user’s input from the HID device.

Prerequsites

The HID report rate can be measured by using either browser-based or platform-specific tools. You can use any preferred HID report rate tool.

Note

The host computer controls polling a HID peripheral for HID reports. The HID peripheral cannot trigger sending a HID report even if the report is prepared in time. Polling inaccuracies and missing polls on the host side can negatively affect the measured report rate. Make sure to close all unnecessary PC applications to mitigate negative impact of these applications on polling HID devices. If you are using a browser-based tool, leave open only the tab with HID report rate measurement tool to ensure that no other tab influences the measurement.

Building information

Use the prj_release.conf configuration for the HID report rate measurement. Debug features, such as logging or assertions, decrease the application performance.

Use the nRF Desktop configuration that acts as a HID mouse reference design for the report rate measurement, as the motion data polling is synchronized with sending HID reports.

Make sure your chosen motion data source will generate movement in each poll interval. Without a need for user’s input, you can generate HID reports that contain mouse movement data. To do this, use the Motion simulated module.

To build an application for evaluating HID report rate, run the following command:

west build -p -b <target> -- -DCONF_FILE=prj_release.conf -DCONFIG_DESKTOP_MOTION_SIMULATED_ENABLE=y 
Report rate measuring tips

See the following list of possible scenarios and best practices:

  • If two or more peripherals are connected through the dongle, and all of the devices support LLPM, then the Bluetooth LE LLPM connection events split evenly among all of the peripherals connected through that dongle. It results in decreased HID report rate. For example, you should observe a 500 Hz HID report rate when both mouse and keyboard are connected through the dongle and a 1000 Hz rate when only the mouse is connected.

  • If a HID peripheral is connected through a dongle, the dongle’s performance must be taken into account when measuring the report rate. Delays related to data forwarding on the dongle also result in reduced report rate.

  • If the device is connected through Bluetooth LE directly to the HID host, then the host sets the Bluetooth LE connection interval. A Bluetooth LE peripheral can suggest the preferred connection parameters. The suggested connection interval can be set using the CONFIG_BT_PERIPHERAL_PREF_MIN_INT and CONFIG_BT_PERIPHERAL_PREF_MAX_INT Kconfig options. Set parameters are not enforced, meaning that the HID host may still eventually use a value greater than the maximum connection interval requested by a peripheral.

  • Radio frequency (RF) noise can negatively affect the HID report rate for wireless connections. If a HID report fails to be delivered in a given Bluetooth LE LLPM connection event, it is retransmitted in the subsequent connection event which effectively reduces the report rate. By avoiding congested RF channels, the Bluetooth LE Quality of Service module helps to achieve better connection quality and a higher report rate.

  • For the USB device connected directly, you can configure your preferred USB HID poll interval using the CONFIG_USB_HID_POLL_INTERVAL_MS Kconfig option. By default, the CONFIG_USB_HID_POLL_INTERVAL_MS Kconfig option is set to 1 to request the lowest possible poll interval. Set parameters are not enforced, meaning that the HID host may still eventually use a value greater than the USB polling interval requested by a peripheral.

Testing steps

After building the application, test the nRF Desktop by performing the following steps:

  1. Program the device with the built firmware.

  2. Connect the device to the computer using a preferred transport (Bluetooth LE, USB, dongle).

  3. Turn on the device. If you use the motion simulated module to generate the mouse movement, the device should automatically start to draw an octagon shape on the screen. Otherwise, you need to constantly keep generating motion manually, for example, by moving your mouse.

  4. Turn off the device to finalize test preparations.

  5. Launch selected HID report rate measurement tool.

  6. Turn back on the device.

  7. Run measurement.

  8. Verify the average HID report rate reported by tool.

Windows Hardware Lab Kit tests

The nRF Desktop devices have passed the tests from official playlist required for compatibility with Windows 10 by Windows Hardware Compatibility Program (HLK Version 1903 CompatPlaylist x86 x64 ARM64.xml). The tests were conducted using Windows Hardware Lab Kit.

Integrating your own hardware

This section describes how to adapt the nRF Desktop application to different hardware. It describes the configuration sources that are used for the default configuration, and lists steps required for adding a new board.

Configuration sources

The nRF Desktop application uses the following files as configuration sources:

  • Devicetree Specification (DTS) files - These reflect the hardware configuration. See Devicetree Guide for more information about the DTS data structure.

  • _def files - These contain configuration arrays for the application modules and are specific to the nRF Desktop application.

  • Kconfig files - These reflect the software configuration. See Kconfig - Tips and Best Practices for information about how to configure them.

For information about differences between DTS and Kconfig, see Devicetree versus Kconfig.

Application-specific Kconfig configuration

The nRF Desktop introduces Kconfig options that can be used to simplify an application configuration. These options can be used to select a device role and to automatically apply a default configuration suitable for the selected role.

Note

Part of the default configuration is applied by modifying the default values of Kconfig options. Changing configuration in menuconfig does not automatically adjust user-configurable values to the new defaults. So, you must update those values manually. For more information, see the Stuck symbols in menuconfig and guiconfig section on the Kconfig - Tips and Best Practices in the Zephyr documentation.

The default Kconfig option values are automatically updated if configuration changes are applied directly in the configuration files.

HID configuration

The nRF Desktop application introduces application-specific configuration options related to HID device configuration. These options are defined in Kconfig.hid.

The options define the nRF Desktop device role. The device role can be either the HID dongle (CONFIG_DESKTOP_ROLE_HID_DONGLE) or the HID peripheral (CONFIG_DESKTOP_ROLE_HID_PERIPHERAL). The HID peripheral role can also specify a peripheral type:

Each role automatically implies nRF Desktop modules needed for the role. For example, HID state module is automatically enabled for the HID peripheral role.

By default, the nRF Desktop devices use predefined format of HID reports. The common HID report map is defined in the configuration/common/hid_report_desc.c file. The selected role implies a set of related HID reports. For example, HID mouse automatically enables support for HID mouse report. If other HID device peripheral type is chosen, the set of HID reports needs to be explicitly defined in the configuration.

Apart from this, the supported HID boot protocol interface can be specified as either:

HID device identifiers

The nRF Desktop application defines the following common device identifiers:

These Kconfig options determine the default values of device identifiers used for:

Note

Apart from the mentioned common device identifiers, the nRF Desktop application defines an application-specific string representing device generation (CONFIG_DESKTOP_DEVICE_GENERATION). The generation allows to distinguish configurations that use the same board and bootloader, but are not interoperable. The value can be read through the Configuration channel.

Debug configuration

The nRF Desktop application introduces application-specific configuration options related to the debug configuration. These options are defined in the Kconfig.debug file.

The CONFIG_DESKTOP_LOG Kconfig option enables support for logging in the nRF Desktop application. This option overlays Kconfig option defaults from the Logging subsystem to align them with the nRF Desktop requirements. The nRF Desktop configuration uses SEGGER J-Link RTT as the Logging subsystem backend.

The CONFIG_DESKTOP_SHELL Kconfig option enables support for CLI in the nRF Desktop application. This option overlays Kconfig option defaults from the Shell subsystem to align them with the nRF Desktop requirements. The nRF Desktop configuration uses SEGGER J-Link RTT as the Shell subsystem backend. If both shell and logging are enabled, logger uses shell as the logging backend.

See the Kconfig.debug file content for details.

Default common configuration

The nRF Desktop application aligns the configuration with the nRF Desktop use case by overlaying Kconfig defaults and selecting or implying the required Kconfig options. Among others, the Kconfig Application Event Manager and Common Application Framework options are selected to ensure that they are enabled. The CONFIG_DESKTOP_SETTINGS_LOADER and CONFIG_DESKTOP_POWER_MANAGER are implied to enable the Settings loader module and Power manager module modules, respectively. See the Kconfig.defaults file for details related to default common configuration.

Bluetooth configuration

The nRF Desktop application introduces application-specific configuration options related to Bluetooth connectivity configuration. These options are defined in Kconfig.ble file.

The CONFIG_DESKTOP_BT Kconfig option enables support for Bluetooth connectivity in the nRF Desktop application. The option is enabled by default.

The nRF Desktop Bluetooth peripheral configuration (CONFIG_DESKTOP_BT_PERIPHERAL) is automatically enabled for the nRF Desktop HID peripheral role (CONFIG_DESKTOP_ROLE_HID_PERIPHERAL). The nRF Desktop Bluetooth central configuration (CONFIG_DESKTOP_BT_CENTRAL) is automatically enabled for the nRF Desktop HID dongle role (CONFIG_DESKTOP_ROLE_HID_DONGLE)

The nRF Desktop Bluetooth configuration options perform the following:

  • Implies application modules related to Bluetooth that are required for the selected device role

  • Selects required functionalities in Zephyr’s Bluetooth stack

  • Overlays Bluetooth Kconfig option defaults to align them with the nRF Desktop use-case

See Kconfig.ble file content for details. See the Bluetooth in nRF Desktop for more information about Bluetooth support in nRF Desktop application.

CAF configuration

The nRF Desktop application overlays defaults of the Common Application Framework related Kconfig options to align them with the nRF Desktop use-case. The files that apply the overlays are located in the src/modules directory and are named Kconfig.caf_module_name.default. For example, the Kconfig defaults of CAF: Settings loader module are overlayed in the src/modules/Kconfig.caf_settings_loader.default.

Board configuration

The nRF Desktop application is modular. Depending on requested functions, it can provide mouse, keyboard, or dongle functionality. The selection of modules depends on the chosen role and also on the selected reference design. For more information about modules available for each configuration, see Overview: Firmware architecture.

For a board to be supported by the application, you must provide a set of configuration files at applications/nrf_desktop/configuration/your_board_name. The application configuration files define both a set of options with which the nRF Desktop application will be created for your board and the selected nRF Desktop build types. Include the following files in this directory:

Mandatory configuration files
  • Application configuration file for the debug build type (prj.conf).

  • Configuration files for the selected modules.

Optional configuration files
  • Application configuration files for other build types.

  • Configuration file for the bootloader.

  • Memory layout configuration.

  • DTS overlay file.

See Adding a new board for information about how to add these files.

nRF Desktop board configuration files

The nRF Desktop application comes with configuration files for the following reference designs:

nRF52840 Gaming Mouse (nrf52840gmouse_nrf52840)
  • The reference design is defined in nrf/boards/arm/nrf52840gmouse_nrf52840 for the project-specific hardware.

  • To achieve gaming-grade performance:

    • The application is configured to act as a gaming mouse, with both Bluetooth LE and USB transports enabled.

    • Bluetooth is configured to use Nordic’s SoftDevice link layer.

  • The configuration with the B0 bootloader is set as default.

  • The board supports debug (prj_fast_pair.conf) and release (prj_release_fast_pair.conf) Fast Pair configurations. Both configurations use the MCUboot bootloader built in the direct-xip mode (MCUBOOT+XIP), and they support the firmware updates using the Device Firmware Upgrade module and the Device Firmware Upgrade MCUmgr module.

nRF52832 Desktop Mouse (nrf52dmouse_nrf52832) and nRF52810 Desktop Mouse (nrf52810dmouse_nrf52810)
  • Both reference designs are meant for the project-specific hardware and are defined in nrf/boards/arm/nrf52dmouse_nrf52832 and nrf/boards/arm/nrf52810dmouse_nrf52810, respectively.

  • The application is configured to act as a mouse.

  • Only the Bluetooth LE transport is enabled. Bluetooth uses either Zephyr’s software link layer (nrf52810dmouse_nrf52810) or Nordic’s SoftDevice link layer (nrf52dmouse_nrf52832).

  • The preconfigured build types for both nrf52dmouse_nrf52832 and nrf52810dmouse_nrf52810 boards are without the bootloader due to memory size limits on nrf52810dmouse_nrf52810 board.

Sample mouse, keyboard or dongle (nrf52840dk_nrf52840)
  • The configuration uses the nRF52840 Development Kit.

  • The build types allow to build the application as mouse, keyboard or dongle.

  • Inputs are simulated based on the hardware button presses.

  • The configuration with the B0 bootloader is set as default.

  • The board supports debug Fast Pair configuration that acts as a mouse (prj_fast_pair.conf). The configuration uses the MCUboot bootloader built in the direct-xip mode (MCUBOOT+XIP), and supports firmware updates using the Device Firmware Upgrade module and the Device Firmware Upgrade MCUmgr module.

Sample dongle (nrf52833dk_nrf52833)
  • The configuration uses the nRF52833 Development Kit.

  • The application is configured to act as a dongle that forwards data from both mouse and keyboard.

  • Bluetooth uses Nordic’s SoftDevice link layer and is configured to act as a central. Input data comes from Bluetooth and is retransmitted to USB.

  • The configuration with the MCUboot bootloader is set as default.

Sample dongle (nrf52833dk_nrf52820)
  • The configuration uses the nRF52820 emulation on the nRF52833 Development Kit.

  • The application is configured to act as a dongle that forwards data from both mouse and keyboard.

  • Bluetooth uses Zephyr’s software link layer and is configured to act as a central. Input data comes from Bluetooth and is retransmitted to USB.

  • The preconfigured build types configure the device without the bootloader in debug mode and with MCUboot bootloader in release mode due to memory size limits.

nRF52832 Desktop Keyboard (nrf52kbd_nrf52832)
  • The reference design used is defined in nrf/boards/arm/nrf52kbd_nrf52832 for the project-specific hardware.

  • The application is configured to act as a keyboard, with the Bluetooth LE transport enabled.

  • Bluetooth is configured to use Nordic’s SoftDevice link layer.

  • The preconfigured build types configure the device without the bootloader in debug mode and with B0 bootloader in release mode due to memory size limits.

  • The board supports release Fast Pair configuration (prj_release_fast_pair.conf). The configuration uses the MCUboot bootloader built in the direct-xip mode (MCUBOOT+XIP), and supports firmware updates using the Device Firmware Upgrade module and the Device Firmware Upgrade MCUmgr module.

nRF52840 USB Dongle (nrf52840dongle_nrf52840) and nRF52833 USB Dongle (nrf52833dongle_nrf52833)
  • Since the nRF52840 Dongle is generic and defined in Zephyr, project-specific changes are applied in the DTS overlay file.

  • The application is configured to act as a dongle that forwards data from both mouse and keyboard.

  • Bluetooth uses Nordic’s SoftDevice link layer and is configured to act as a central. Input data comes from Bluetooth and is retransmitted to USB.

  • The configuration with the B0 bootloader is set as default for nrf52840dongle_nrf52840 board and with the MCUboot bootloader is set as default for nrf52833dongle_nrf52833 board.

nRF52820 USB Dongle (nrf52820dongle_nrf52820)
  • The application is configured to act as a dongle that forwards data from both mouse and keyboard.

  • Bluetooth uses Zephyr’s software link layer and is configured to act as a central. Input data comes from Bluetooth and is retransmitted to USB.

  • The preconfigured build types configure the device without the bootloader in debug mode and with MCUboot bootloader in release mode due to memory size limits.

Sample dongle (nrf5340dk_nrf5340)
  • The application is configured to act as a dongle that forwards data from both mouse and keyboard.

  • Bluetooth uses Nordic’s SoftDevice link layer without LLPM and is configured to act as a central. Input data comes from Bluetooth and is retransmitted to USB.

  • The configuration with the B0 bootloader is set as default.

Adding a new board

When adding a new board for the first time, focus on a single configuration. Moreover, keep the default debug build type that the application is built with, and do not add any additional build type parameters. The following procedure uses the gaming mouse configuration as an example.

Zephyr support for a board

Before introducing nRF Desktop application configuration for a given board, you need to ensure that the board is supported in Zephyr.

Note

You can skip this step if your selected board is already supported in Zephyr.

Follow the Zephyr’s Board Porting Guide for detailed instructions related to introducing Zephyr support for a new board. Make sure that the following conditions are met:

  1. Edit the DTS files to make sure they match the hardware configuration. Pay attention to the following elements:

  2. Edit the board’s Kconfig files to make sure they match the required system configuration. For example, disable the drivers that will not be used by your device.

Tip

You can define the new board by copying the nRF Desktop reference design files that are the closest match for your hardware and then aligning the configuration to your hardware. For example, for gaming mouse use nrf/boards/arm/nrf52840gmouse_nrf52840.

nRF Desktop configuration

Perform the following steps to add nRF Desktop application configuration for a board that is already supported in Zephyr.

  1. Copy the project files for the device that is the closest match for your hardware. For example, for gaming mouse these are located at applications/nrf_desktop/configuration/nrf52840gmouse_nrf52840.

  2. Optionally, depending on the reference design, edit the DTS overlay file. This step is not required if you have created a new reference design and its DTS files fully describe your hardware. In such case, the overlay file can be left empty.

  3. In Kconfig, ensure that the following hardware interface modules that are specific for gaming mouse are enabled:

  4. For each module enabled, change its configuration to match your hardware. Apply the following changes, depending on the module:

    Motion module
    • The nrf52840gmouse_nrf52840 uses the PMW3360 optical motion sensor. The sensor is configured in DTS, and the sensor type is selected in the application configuration. To add a new sensor, expand the application configuration.

    Wheel module
    • The wheel is based on the QDEC peripheral of the nRF52840 device and the hardware-related part is configured in DTS.

    Buttons module
    • To simplify the configuration of arrays, the nRF Desktop application uses _def files.

    • The _def file of the buttons module contains pins assigned to rows and columns.

    Battery measurement module
    • The _def file of the battery measurement module contains the mapping needed to match the voltage that is read from ADC to the battery level.

    LEDs module
    • The application uses two logical LEDs - one for the peers state, and one for the system state indication.

    • Each of the logical LEDs can have either one (monochromatic) or three color channels (RGB). Such color channel is a physical LED.

    • The module uses Zephyr’s Light-Emitting Diode (LED) driver for setting the LED color. Zephyr’s LED driver can use the implementation based on either GPIO or PWM (Pulse-Width Modulation). The hardware configuration is described through DTS. See the CAF: LEDs module configuration section for details.

  5. Review the HID configuration.

  6. By default, the nRF Desktop device enables Bluetooth connectivity support. Review the Bluetooth configuration.

    1. Ensure that the Bluetooth role is properly configured. For mouse, it should be configured as peripheral.

    2. Update the configuration related to peer control. You can also disable the peer control using the CONFIG_DESKTOP_BLE_PEER_CONTROL option. Peer control details are described in the Bluetooth LE bond module documentation.

  7. Edit Kconfig to disable options that you do not use. Some options have dependencies that might not be needed when these options are disabled. For example, when the LEDs module is disabled, the PWM driver is not needed.

Adding a new motion sensor

This procedure describes how to add a new motion sensor into the project. You can use it as a reference for adding other hardware components.

The nRF Desktop application comes with a Motion module that is able to read data from a motion sensor. While nRF Connect SDK provides support for two motion sensor drivers (PMW3360 and PAW3212), you can add support for a different sensor, based on your development needs.

Complete the steps described in the following sections to add a new motion sensor.

Add a new sensor driver

First, create a new motion sensor driver that will provide code for communication with the sensor. Use the two existing nRF Connect SDK sensor drivers as an example.

The communication between the application and the sensor is done through a sensor driver API (see Sensors). For the motion module to work correctly, the driver must support a trigger (see sensor_trigger_set) on a new data (see SENSOR_TRIG_DATA_READY trigger type).

When the motion data is ready, the driver calls a registered callback. The application starts a process of retrieving a motion data sample. The motion module calls sensor_sample_fetch and then sensor_channel_get on two sensor channels, SENSOR_CHAN_POS_DX and SENSOR_CHAN_POS_DY. The driver must support these two channels.

Create a DTS binding

Zephyr recommends to use DTS for hardware configuration (see Devicetree versus Kconfig). For the new motion sensor configuration to be recognized by DTS, define a dedicated DTS binding. See Devicetree bindings for more information, and refer to dts/bindings/sensor for binding examples.

Configure sensor through DTS

Once binding is defined, it is possible to set the sensor configuration. This is done by editing the DTS file that describes the board. For more information, see Introduction to devicetree.

As an example, take a look at the PMW3360 sensor that already exists in nRF Connect SDK. The following code excerpt is taken from boards/arm/nrf52840gmouse_nrf52840/nrf52840gmouse_nrf52840.dts:

&spi1 {
     compatible = "nordic,nrf-spim";
     status = "okay";
     cs-gpios = <&gpio0 13 0>;

     pinctrl-0 = <&spi1_default_alt>;
     pinctrl-1 = <&spi1_sleep_alt>;
     pinctrl-names = "default", "sleep";
     pmw3360@0 {
             compatible = "pixart,pmw3360";
             reg = <0>;
             irq-gpios = <&gpio0 21 0>;
             spi-max-frequency = <2000000>;
     };
};

The communication with PMW3360 is done through the SPI, which makes the sensor a subnode of the SPI bus node. SPI pins are defined as part of the bus configuration, as these are common among all devices connected to this bus. In this case, the PMW3360 sensor is the only device on this bus and so there is only one pin specified for selecting chip.

When the sensor’s node is mentioned, you can read @0 in pmw3360@0. For SPI devices, @0 refers to the position of the chip select pin in the cs-gpios array for a corresponding device.

Note the string compatible = "pixart,pmw3360" in the subnode configuration. This string indicates which DTS binding the node will use. The binding should match with the DTS binding created earlier for the sensor.

The following options are inherited from the spi-device binding and are common to all SPI devices:

  • reg - The slave ID number the device has on a bus.

  • label - Used to generate a name of the device (for example, it will be added to generated macros).

  • spi-max-frequency - Used for setting the bus clock frequency.

    Note

    To achieve the full speed, data must be propagated through the application and reach Bluetooth LE a few hundred microseconds before the subsequent connection event. If you aim for the lowest latency through the LLPM (an interval of 1 ms), the sensor data readout should take no more than 250 us. The bus and the sensor configuration must ensure that communication speed is fast enough.

The remaining option irq-gpios is specific to pixart,pmw3360 binding. It refers to the PIN to which the motion sensor IRQ line is connected.

If a different kind of bus is used for the new sensor, the DTS layout will be different.

Include sensor in the application

Once the new sensor is supported by nRF Connect SDK and board configuration is updated, you can include it in the nRF Desktop application.

The nRF Desktop application selects a sensor using the configuration options defined in src/hw_interface/Kconfig.motion. Add the new sensor as a new choice option.

The Motion module of the nRF Desktop application has access to several sensor attributes. These attributes are used to modify the sensor behavior in runtime. Since the names of the attributes differ for each sensor, the Motion module uses a generic abstraction of them. You can translate the new sensor-specific attributes to a generic abstraction by modifying configuration/common/motion_sensor.h .

Tip

If an attribute is not supported by the sensor, it does not have to be defined. In such case, set the attribute to -ENOTSUP.

Select the new sensor

The application can now use the new sensor. Edit the application configuration files for your board to enable it. See Board configuration for details.

To start using the new sensor, complete the following steps:

  1. Enable all dependencies required by the driver (for example, bus driver).

  2. Enable the new sensor driver.

  3. Select the new sensor driver in the application configuration options.

Changing interrupt priority

You can edit the DTS files to change the priority of the peripheral’s interrupt. This can be useful when adding a new custom board or whenever you need to change the interrupt priority.

The interrupts property is an array, where the meaning of each element is defined by the specification of the interrupt controller. These specification files are located at zephyr/dts/bindings/interrupt-controller/ DTS binding file directory.

For example, for nRF52840 the file is arm,v7m-nvic.yaml. This file defines interrupts property in the interrupt-cells list. For nRF52840, it contains two elements: irq and priority. The default values for these elements for the given peripheral can be found in the dtsi file specific for the device. In the case of nRF52840, this is zephyr/dts/arm/nordic/nrf52840.dtsi, which has the following interrupts:

spi1: spi@40004000 {
        /*
         * This spi node can be SPI, SPIM, or SPIS,
         * for the user to pick:
         * compatible = "nordic,nrf-spi" or
         *              "nordic,nrf-spim" or
         *              "nordic,nrf-spis".
         */
        #address-cells = <1>;
        #size-cells = <0>;
        reg = <0x40004000 0x1000>;
        interrupts = <4 1>;
        status = "disabled";
};

To change the priority of the peripheral’s interrupt, override the interrupts property of the peripheral node by including the following code snippet in the dts.overlay or directly in the board DTS:

&spi1 {
    interrupts = <4 2>;
};

This code snippet will change the SPI1 interrupt priority from default 1 to 2.

Memory layout

You must define the memory layout as a part of the application configuration for a given board. The set of required partitions differs depending on configuration:

  • There must be at least one partition where the code is stored.

  • There must be one partition for storing Settings.

  • If the bootloader is enabled, it adds more partitions to the set.

  • When using an SoC with multiple cores, the firmware for additional cores adds more partitions to the set. For example, the network core of the nRF53 SoC uses the HCI RPMsg firmware image, which allows to utilize the core for Bluetooth LE communication.

Important

Before updating the firmware, make sure that the data stored in the settings partition is compatible with the new firmware. If it is incompatible, erase the settings area before using the new firmware.

The memory layout is defined through one of the following methods:

By default, a Zephyr-based application defines the memory layout in the DTS. If enabled, the Partition Manager defines a new memory layout that is used instead of the memory layout defined in the DTS. You can use the CONFIG_PARTITION_MANAGER_ENABLED Kconfig option value to check whether the Partition Manager is enabled in the current build. The option is automatically selected as part of the Multi-image builds feature to build the application with more than one image. Enabling the Fast Pair also results in using the Partition Manager. To store the Fast Pair Provisioning data, the Fast Pair integration in the nRF Connect SDK uses partition defined by the Partition Manager.

Memory layout in DTS

In case you rely on a non-volatile memory layout described in DTS files, define the partitions child node under the DTS node that represents the non-volatile memory. For example, the nRF52 Series devices use non-volatile flash memory represented by the flash device node (&flash0). Make sure to also update the DTS chosen nodes, which represent the code partition (zephyr,code-partition) and flash (zephyr,flash), if needed.

If you wish to change the default memory layout of the board without editing the board-specific files, edit the DTS overlay file. The nRF Desktop application automatically adds the dts.overlay file if it is present in the project’s board configuration directory. For more details, see the Board configuration section.

Important

By default, Zephyr does not use the code partition defined in the DTS files. It is only used if the CONFIG_USE_DT_CODE_PARTITION Kconfig option is enabled. If this option is disabled, the code is loaded at the offset defined by the CONFIG_FLASH_LOAD_OFFSET Kconfig option. In that case, the code spawns for CONFIG_FLASH_LOAD_SIZE (or for the whole remaining chosen zephyr,flash memory if the load size is set to 0). The settings memory partition definition is still used by the firmware even if the CONFIG_USE_DT_CODE_PARTITION Kconfig option is disabled.

For more information about how to configure the non-volatile memory layout in the DTS files, see Flash map.

Memory layout in Partition Manager

When the CONFIG_PARTITION_MANAGER_ENABLED Kconfig option is enabled, the nRF Desktop application uses the Partition Manager for the memory layout configuration. The nRF Desktop configurations use static configurations of partitions to ensure that the partition layout will not change between builds.

Add the pm_static_$BUILD_TYPE.yml file to the project’s board configuration directory to define the static Partition Manager configuration for given board and build type. For example, to define the static partition layout for the nrf52840dk_nrf52840 board and release build type, you would need to add the pm_static_release.yml file into the applicatons/nrf_desktop/configuration/nrf52840dk_nrf52840 directory.

Take into account the following points:

  • For the background firmware upgrade, you must define the secondary image partition. This is because the update image is stored on the secondary image partition while the device is running firmware from the primary partition. For this reason, the feature is not available for devices with smaller non-volatile memory size, because the size of the required non-volatile memory is essentially doubled. The devices with smaller non-volatile memory size can use either USB serial recovery or the MCUboot bootloader with the secondary image partition located on an external non-volatile memory.

  • When you use USB serial recovery, you do not need the secondary image partition. The firmware image is overwritten by the bootloader.

For an example of configuration, see the static partition maps defined for the existing configuration that uses a given DFU method. For more information about how to configure the non-volatile memory layout using the Partition Manager, see Partition Manager.

External flash configuration

The Partition Manager supports partitions in external flash.

Enabling external flash can be useful especially for memory-limited devices. For example, the MCUboot can use it as a secondary image partition for the background firmware upgrade. The MCUboot moves the image data from the secondary image partition to the primary image partition before booting the new firmware.

For an example of the nRF Desktop application configuration that uses an external flash, see the mcuboot_qspi configuration of the nRF52840 Development Kit. This configuration uses the MX25R64 external flash that is part of the development kit.

For detailed information, see the Partition Manager documentation.

Bluetooth in nRF Desktop

The nRF Desktop devices use Zephyr’s Bluetooth API to handle the Bluetooth LE connections.

This API is used only by the application modules that handle such connections. The information about peer and connection state is propagated to other application modules using Application Event Manager events.

The CONFIG_DESKTOP_BT Kconfig option enables support for Bluetooth connectivity in the nRF Desktop. Specific Bluetooth configurations and application modules are selected or implied according to the HID device role. Apart from that, the defaults of Bluetooth-related Kconfigs are aligned with the nRF Desktop use case.

The nRF Desktop devices come in the following roles:

Both central and peripheral devices have dedicated configuration options and use dedicated modules.

The nRF Desktop peripheral configurations that enable Fast Pair support use slightly different Bluetooth configuration. This is needed to improve the user experience. See Fast Pair for more details.

Note

There is no nRF Desktop device that supports both central and peripheral roles.

Common configuration and application modules

Some Bluetooth-related configuration options (including Link Layer configuration options in a separate section) and application modules are common for every nRF Desktop device.

Configuration options

This section describes the most important Bluetooth Kconfig options common for all nRF Desktop devices. For detailed information about every option, see the Kconfig help.

  • CONFIG_BT_MAX_PAIRED

    • nRF Desktop central: The maximum number of paired devices is greater than or equal to the maximum number of simultaneously connected peers. The CONFIG_BT_MAX_PAIRED is by default set to CONFIG_DESKTOP_HID_DONGLE_BOND_COUNT.

    • nRF Desktop peripheral: The maximum number of paired devices is equal to the number of peers plus one, where the one additional paired device slot is used for erase advertising.

  • CONFIG_BT_ID_MAX

    • nRF Desktop central: The device uses only one Bluetooth local identity, that is the default one.

    • nRF Desktop peripheral: The number of Bluetooth local identities must be equal to the number of peers plus two.

      • One additional local identity is used for erase advertising.

      • The other additional local identity is the default local identity, which is unused, because it cannot be reset after removing the bond. Without the identity reset, the previously bonded central could still try to reconnect after being removed from Bluetooth bonds on the peripheral side.

  • CONFIG_BT_MAX_CONN

Note

After changing the number of Bluetooth peers for the nRF Desktop peripheral device, update the LED effects used to represent the Bluetooth connection state. For details, see LED state module.

Application modules

Every nRF Desktop device that enables Bluetooth must handle connections and manage bonds. These features are implemented by the following modules:

You need to enable all these modules to enable both features. For information about how to enable the modules, see their respective documentation pages.

Optionally, you can also enable the following module:

Note

The nRF Desktop devices enable CONFIG_BT_SETTINGS. When this option is enabled, the application is responsible for calling the settings_load() function - this is handled by the Settings loader module.

Bluetooth Peripheral

The nRF Desktop peripheral devices must include additional configuration options and additional application modules to comply with the HID over GATT specification.

The HID over GATT profile specification requires Bluetooth Peripherals to define the following GATT Services:

The nRF Desktop peripherals must also define a dedicated GATT Service, which is used to provide the following information:

  • Information whether the device can use the LLPM Bluetooth connection parameters.

  • Hardware ID of the peripheral.

The GATT Service is implemented by the Device description module.

Apart from the GATT Services, an nRF Desktop peripheral device must enable and configure the following application modules:

Optionally, you can also enable the following module:

  • Quality of Service module - Forwards the Bluetooth LE channel map generated by Bluetooth LE Quality of Service module. The Bluetooth LE channel map is forwarded using GATT characteristic. The Bluetooth Central can apply the channel map to avoid congested RF channels. This results in better connection quality and higher report rate.

Fast Pair

The nRF Desktop peripheral can be built with Google Fast Pair support. The configurations that enable Fast Pair are set in the prj_fast_pair.conf and prj_release_fast_pair.conf files.

Note

The Fast Pair integration in the nRF Desktop is experimental. The factory reset of the Fast Pair non-volatile data is not yet supported.

The Fast Pair support in the nRF Connect SDK is experimental. See Google Fast Pair integration for details.

These configurations support multiple bonds per Bluetooth local identity (CONFIG_CAF_BLE_STATE_MAX_LOCAL_ID_BONDS is set to 3) and erase advertising (CONFIG_DESKTOP_BLE_PEER_ERASE), but Bluetooth peer selection (CONFIG_DESKTOP_BLE_PEER_SELECT) is disabled. You can now pair with your other hosts without putting peripheral back in pairing mode (without triggering the erase advertising). The nRF Desktop peripheral that integrates Fast Pair behaves as follows:

  • The dongle peer does not use the Fast Pair advertising payload.

  • The bond erase operation is enabled for the dongle peer. This will let you change the bonded Bluetooth Central.

  • If the dongle peer (CONFIG_DESKTOP_BLE_DONGLE_PEER_ENABLE) is enabled, the Swift Pair payload is, by default, included only for the mentioned peer. In the Fast Pair configurations, the dongle peer is intended to be used for all of the peers that are not Fast Pair Seekers.

  • If the used Bluetooth local identity has no bonds, the device advertises in pairing mode, and the Fast Pair discoverable advertising is used. This allows to pair with the nRF Desktop device using both Fast Pair and normal Bluetooth pairing flows. This advertising payload is also used during the erase advertising.

  • If the used Bluetooth local identity already has a bond, the device is no longer in the pairing mode and the Fast Pair not discoverable advertising is used. This allows to pair only with the Fast Pair Seekers linked to Google Accounts that are already associated with the nRF Desktop device. In this mode the device by default rejects normal Bluetooth pairing (CONFIG_DESKTOP_FAST_PAIR_LIMIT_NORMAL_PAIRING option is enabled). The Fast Pair UI indication is hidden after the Provider reaches CONFIG_CAF_BLE_STATE_MAX_LOCAL_ID_BONDS bonded peers on the used local identity.

  • The Factory reset module is enabled by default if the Configuration channel is supported by the device. The factory reset operation removes both Fast Pair and Bluetooth non-volatile data. The factory reset operation is triggered using the configuration channel.

After successful erase advertising procedure, the peripheral removes all of the bonds of a given Bluetooth local identity.

Apart from that, the following changes are applied in configurations that support Fast Pair:

See Google Fast Pair integration for detailed information about Fast Pair support in the nRF Connect SDK.

Bluetooth Central

The nRF Desktop central must implement Bluetooth scanning and handle the GATT operations. The central must also control the Bluetooth connection parameters. These features are implemented by the following application modules:

Bootloader

The nRF Desktop application can use one of the following bootloaders:

Secure Bootloader

In this documentation, the Secure Bootloader is referred as B0. B0 is a small, simple, and secure bootloader that allows the application to boot directly from one of the application slots, thus increasing the speed of the direct firmware upgrade (DFU) process. B0 is supported on the SoCs from the following series:

  • nRF52 Series

  • nRF53 Series (supports only application core DFU)

This bootloader can be used only for the background DFU through the Configuration channel and Device Firmware Upgrade module. More information about the B0 can be found at the nRF Secure Immutable Bootloader page.

MCUboot

MCUboot is supported on the SoCs from the following series:

  • nRF52 Series

  • nRF53 Series

The MCUboot bootloader can be used in the following scenarios:

  • Background DFU. In this scenario, the MCUboot either swaps the application images located on the secondary and primary slot before booting a new image (swap mode) or boots a new application image directly from the secondary image slot (direct-xip mode). The swap operation significantly increases boot time after a successful image transfer, but external non-volatile memory can be used as the secondary image slot.

    You can use the MCUboot for the background DFU through the Configuration channel and Device Firmware Upgrade module. The MCUboot can also be used for the background DFU over Simple Management Protocol (SMP). The SMP can be used to transfer the new firmware image in the background, for example, from an Android device. In that case, either the Simple Management Protocol module or Device Firmware Upgrade MCUmgr module is used to handle the image transfer. The Simple Management Protocol module relies on a generic module implemented in the Common Application Framework (CAF). The Device Firmware Upgrade MCUmgr module uses an application-specific implementation that allows to synchronize a secondary image slot access with the Device Firmware Upgrade module using the DFU lock utility.

  • USB serial recovery. In this scenario, the MCUboot bootloader supports the USB serial recovery. The USB serial recovery can be used for memory-limited devices that support the USB connection. In this mode, unlike in the background DFU mode, the DFU image transfer is handled by the bootloader. The application is not running and it can be overwritten. Because of that, only one application slot may be used.

For more information about the MCUboot, see the MCUboot documentation.

Note

The nRF Desktop application can use either B0 or MCUboot. The MCUboot is not used as the second stage bootloader.

Important

Make sure that you use your own private key for the release version of the devices. Do not use the debug key for production.

If your configuration enables the bootloader, make sure to define a static non-volatile memory layout in the Partition Manager. See Memory layout for details.

Configuring the B0 bootloader

To enable the B0 bootloader, select the CONFIG_SECURE_BOOT Kconfig option in the application configuration.

The B0 bootloader additionally requires enabling the following options in the application configuration:

  • CONFIG_SB_SIGNING_KEY_FILE - Required for providing the signature used for image signing and verification.

  • CONFIG_FW_INFO - Required for the application versioning information.

  • CONFIG_FW_INFO_FIRMWARE_VERSION - Enable this option to set the version of the application after you enabled CONFIG_FW_INFO. The nRF Desktop application with the B0 bootloader configuration builds two application images: one for the S0 slot and the other for the S1 slot. To generate the DFU package, you need to update this configuration only in the main application image as the s1_image child image mirrors it. You can do that by rebuilding the application from scratch or by changing the configuration of the main image through menuconfig.

  • CONFIG_BUILD_S1_VARIANT - Required for the build system to be able to construct the application binaries for both application’s slots in non-volatile memory.

Configuring the MCUboot bootloader

To enable the MCUboot bootloader, select the CONFIG_BOOTLOADER_MCUBOOT Kconfig option in the application configuration.

The MCUboot private key path (CONFIG_BOOT_SIGNATURE_KEY_FILE) must be set only in the MCUboot bootloader configuration file. The key is used both by the build system (to sign the application update images) and by the bootloader (to verify the application signature using public key derived from the selected private key).

The MCUboot bootloader configuration depends on the selected way of performing image upgrade. For detailed information about the available MCUboot bootloader modes, see the following sections.

Swap mode

In the swap mode, the MCUboot bootloader moves the image to the primary slot before booting it. The swap mode is the image upgrade mode used by default for the background DFU.

If the swap mode is used, the application must request firmware upgrade and confirm the running image. For this purpose, make sure to enable CONFIG_IMG_MANAGER and CONFIG_MCUBOOT_IMG_MANAGER Kconfig options in the application configuration. These options allow the Device Firmware Upgrade module, Simple Management Protocol module, and Device Firmware Upgrade MCUmgr module to manage the DFU image.

Note

When the MCUboot bootloader is in the swap mode, it can use a secondary image slot located on the external non-volatile memory. For details on using external non-volatile memory for the secondary image slot, see the External flash configuration section.

Direct-xip mode

The direct-xip mode is used for the background DFU. In this mode, the MCUboot bootloader boots an image directly from a given slot, so the swap operation is not needed. To set the MCUboot mode of operations to the direct-xip mode, make sure to enable the CONFIG_MCUBOOT_BOOTLOADER_MODE_DIRECT_XIP Kconfig option in the application configuration. This option automatically enables CONFIG_BOOT_BUILD_DIRECT_XIP_VARIANT to build application update images for both slots.

Enable the CONFIG_BOOT_DIRECT_XIP Kconfig option in the bootloader configuration to make the MCUboot run the image directly from both image slots. The nRF Desktop’s bootloader configurations do not enable the revert mechanism (CONFIG_BOOT_DIRECT_XIP_REVERT). When the direct-xip mode is enabled (the CONFIG_MCUBOOT_BOOTLOADER_MODE_DIRECT_XIP Kconfig option is set in the application configuration), the application modules that control the DFU transport do not request firmware upgrades and do not confirm the running image. In that scenario, the MCUboot bootloader simply boots the image with the higher image version.

By default, the MCUboot bootloader ignores the build number while comparing image versions. Enable the CONFIG_BOOT_VERSION_CMP_USE_BUILD_NUMBER Kconfig option in the bootloader configuration to use the build number while comparing image versions. To apply the same option for the Simple Management Protocol module or Device Firmware Upgrade MCUmgr module, enable the CONFIG_MCUMGR_GRP_IMG_VERSION_CMP_USE_BUILD_NUMBER Kconfig option in the application configuration.

It is recommended to also enable the CONFIG_MCUMGR_GRP_IMG_REJECT_DIRECT_XIP_MISMATCHED_SLOT Kconfig option in the application configuration to make sure that MCUmgr rejects application image updates with invalid start address. This prevents uploading an update image build for improper slot through the MCUmgr’s Simple Management Protocol (SMP).

Serial recovery mode

In the USB serial recovery mode, the MCUboot bootloader uses a built-in foreground DFU transport over serial interface through USB. The application is not involved in the foreground DFU transport, therefore it can be directly overwritten by the bootloader. Because of that, the configuration with the serial recovery mode requires only a single application slot.

Enable the USB serial recovery DFU using the following configuration options:

  • CONFIG_MCUBOOT_SERIAL - This option enables the serial recovery DFU.

  • CONFIG_BOOT_SERIAL_CDC_ACM - This option enables the serial interface through USB.

    Note

    Make sure to enable and properly configure the USB subsystem in the bootloader configuration. See USB device support APIs for more information.

If the predefined button is pressed during the boot, the MCUboot bootloader enters the serial recovery mode instead of booting the application. The GPIO pin used to trigger the serial recovery mode is configured using Devicetree Specification (DTS). The pin is configured with the mcuboot-button0 alias. The mcuboot-led0 alias can be used to define the LED activated in the serial recovery mode. The CONFIG_MCUBOOT_INDICATION_LED Kconfig option must be selected to enable the LED. By default, both the GPIO pin and the LED are defined in the board’s DTS file. See boards/arm/nrf52833dongle_nrf52833/nrf52833dongle_nrf52833.dts for an example of board’s DTS file used by the nRF Desktop application.

For an example of bootloader Kconfig configuration file defined by the application, see the MCUboot bootloader debug configuration defined for nRF52833 dongle (applications/nrf_desktop/configuration/nrf52833dongle_nrf52833/child_image/mcuboot/prj.conf).

Note

The nRF Desktop devices use either the serial recovery DFU with a single application slot or the background DFU. Both mentioned firmware upgrade methods are not used simultaneously by any of the configurations. For example, the nrf52840dk_nrf52840 board in prj_mcuboot_smp.conf uses only the background DFU and does not enable the serial recovery feature.

Background Device Firmware Upgrade

The nRF Desktop application uses the Configuration channel and Device Firmware Upgrade module for the background DFU process. From the application perspective, the update image transfer during the background DFU process is very similar for all supported configurations:

  • MCUboot

  • Secure Bootloader (B0)

The firmware update process has three stages, discussed below. At the end of these three stages, the nRF Desktop application will be rebooted with the new firmware package installed.

Note

The background firmware upgrade can also be performed over the Simple Management Protocol (SMP). For more details about the DFU procedure over SMP, read the documentation of the following modules:

Update image generation

The update image is generated in the build directory when building the firmware regardless of the chosen DFU configuration.

MCUboot and B0 bootloaders

The zephyr/dfu_application.zip file is used by both B0 and MCUboot bootloader for the background DFU through the Configuration channel and Device Firmware Upgrade module. The package contains firmware images along with additional metadata. If the used bootloader boots the application directly from either slot 0 or slot 1, the host script transfers the update image that can be run from the unused slot. Otherwise, the image is always uploaded to the slot 1 and then moved to slot 0 by the bootloader before boot.

Note

Make sure to properly configure the bootloader to ensure that the build system generates the zephyr/dfu_application.zip archive containing all of the required update images.

Update image transfer

The update image is transmitted in the background through the Configuration channel. The configuration channel data is transmitted either through USB or over Bluetooth, using HID feature reports. This allows the device to be used normally during the whole process (that is, the device does not need to enter any special state in which it becomes non-responsive to the user).

Depending on the side on which the process is handled:

  • On the application side, the process is handled by Device Firmware Upgrade module. See the module documentation for how to enable and configure it.

  • On the host side, the process is handled by the HID configurator for nRF Desktop. See the tool documentation for more information about how to execute the background DFU process on the host.

Image transfer over SMP

The update image can also be transferred in the background through one of the following modules:

The nRF Connect Device Manager application transfers image update files over the Simple Management Protocol (SMP).

To perform DFU using the nRF Connect Device Manager mobile app, complete the following steps:

  1. Generate the DFU package by building your application with the FOTA support over Bluetooth Low Energy. You can find the generated dfu_application.zip archive in the following directory <build_dir>/zephyr.

    Note

    For each image included in the DFU-generated package, use a higher version number than your currently active firmware. Otherwise, the DFU target may reject the FOTA process due to a downgrade prevention mechanism.

  2. Download the dfu_application.zip archive to your device. See Output build files (image files) for more information about the contents of update archive.

    Note

    nRF Connect for Desktop does not currently support the FOTA process.

  3. Use the nRF Connect Device Manager mobile app to update your device with the new firmware.

    1. Ensure that you can access the dfu_application.zip archive from your phone or tablet.

    2. In the mobile app, scan and select the device to update.

    3. Switch to the Image tab.

    4. Tap the SELECT FILE button and select the dfu_application.zip archive.

    5. Tap the START button.

    6. Initiate the DFU process of transferring the image to the device:

      • If you are using an Android device, select a mode in the dialog window, and tap the START button.

      • If you are using an iOS device, tap the selected mode in the pop-up window.

    7. Wait for the DFU to finish and then verify that the application works properly.

Note

Support for FOTA updates with MCUboot in the direct-xip mode is available since the following versions of the nRF Connect Device Manager mobile app:

  • Version 1.8.0 on Android.

  • Version 1.4.0 on iOS.

Note

If the CONFIG_MCUMGR_GRP_IMG_REJECT_DIRECT_XIP_MISMATCHED_SLOT Kconfig option is enabled in the application configuration, the device rejects update image upload for the invalid slot. It is recommended to enable the option if the application uses MCUboot in the direct-xip mode.

Update image verification and application image update

Once the update image transfer is completed, the background DFU process will continue after the device reboot. If HID configurator for nRF Desktop is used, the reboot is triggered by the script right after the image transfer completes.

The implementation details of the reboot mechanism for the chosen DFU configuration are described in the following subsections.

MCUboot and B0 bootloaders

For these configuration variants, the sys_reboot() function is called to reboot the device. After the reboot, the bootloader locates the update image on the update partition of the device. The image verification process ensures the integrity of the image and checks if its signature is valid. If verification is successful, the bootloader boots the new version of the application. Otherwise, the old version is used.

Serial recovery DFU

The serial recovery DFU is a feature of MCUboot and it needs to be enabled in the bootloader’s configuration. For the configuration details, see the Configuring the MCUboot bootloader section.

To start the serial recovery DFU, the device should boot into recovery mode, in which the bootloader will be waiting for a new image upload to start. In the serial recovery DFU mode, the new image is transferred through an USB CDC ACM class instance. The bootloader overwrites the existing application located on the primary slot with the new application image. If the transfer is interrupted, the device will not be able to boot the incomplete application, and the image upload must be performed again.

Once the device enters the serial recovery mode, you can use the mcumgr to:

  • Query information about the present image.

  • Upload the new image. The mcumgr uses the zephyr/app_update.bin update image file. It is generated by the build system when building the firmware.

For example, the following line will start the upload of the new image to the device:

mcumgr -t 60 --conntype serial --connstring=/dev/ttyACM0 image upload build-nrf52833dongle_nrf52833/zephyr/app_update.bin

The command assumes that /dev/ttyACM0 serial device is used by the MCUboot bootloader for the serial recovery.

fwupd support

fwupd is an open-source project providing tools and daemon for managing the installation of firmware updates on Linux-based systems. Together with the LVFS (Linux Vendor Firmware Service), it provides a solution for vendors to easily distribute firmware for compatible devices.

The fwupd tools can communicate with the devices running the nRF Desktop application with the Background Device Firmware Upgrade feature enabled.

Nordic HID plugin

The fwupd project allows communication with multiple types of devices through various communication protocols. The communication protocols are implemented using plugins. The plugin associated with the DFU protocol realized through the Configuration channel is branded as nordic_hid.

Adding a new device

The device specifies which protocol is used for the communication by adding the specific device information to the plugin metadata. For the nordic_hid plugin, this file is located at nordic-hid.quirk. The following example shows the information passed to the plugin metadata:

[HIDRAW\VEN_1915&DEV_52DE]
Plugin = nordic_hid
GType = FuNordicHidCfgChannel
NordicHidBootloader = B0

In this console snippet:

  • [HIDRAW\VEN_1915&DEV_52DE] - This line describes the device instance ID provided by the OS, which identifies the device.

  • Plugin = nordic_hid and GType = FuNordicHidCfgChannel - These lines set the plugin that the device uses.

  • NordicHidBootloader - This optional line selects the bootloader that the device is running. If the device does not have the information about the underlying bootloader, the NordicHidBootloader option is used to select a proper bootloader type. If there is no information about the bootloader, both in metadata and from the device, the update procedure will fail. The possible values are either B0, MCUBOOT or MCUBOOT+XIP.

Note

As the nordic_hid plugin communicates with the device using the Configuration channel, the device update is not allowed through the Serial recovery DFU.

To add a new device, a pull request must be opened to the fwupd repository with a new entry to the nordic-hid.quirk file.

LVFS and update image preparation

The LVFS (Linux Vendor Firmware Service) hosts firmware images that can be downloaded by Linux machines and used by the fwupd tool for the firmware update of compatible devices. A vendor account is needed to upload a new firmware archive to the site. Information on how to apply for an account is found at the LVFS Getting an account website.

The nRF Desktop application DFU image is delivered as a zip package, containing a manifest and one or more binary files used for the update. To prepare the image file compatible with the LVFS, the CAB file needs to be prepared. The CAB package must contain the DFU package generated by the nRF Connect SDK, that is dfu_application.zip, plus metadata file with information used by the LVFS. For more information, see the LVFS metadata site.

When the CAB archive has been built, it can be uploaded to the LVFS where the CAB archive is verified and signed. For more information about creating CAB files, signing, and uploading the update package, see the LVFS Uploading Firmware site.

Upgrading firmware using fwupd

Once the update image was uploaded onto the LVFS, the firmware update procedure can be tested on end machines.

Complete the following steps:

  1. Make sure that the host machine to which the updatable device running the nRF Desktop application is connected has the fwupd tool installed.

  2. Fetch the information about available update images from the LVFS by using the following commands:

    fwupdmgr refresh
    fwupdmgr get-updates
    

    In this console snippet:

    • fwupdmgr refresh - This command downloads the latest metadata from the LVFS.

    • fwupdmgr get-updates - This command displays the updates available for the devices on the host system.

  3. Test the update image on a limited number of devices before it goes public. For more information about limiting the visibility of updated images uploaded to the LVFS, see the LVFS testing site.

  4. Run the following command to update the devices:

    fwupdmgr update
    

When connecting to the device, the application verifies the bootloader type. This is done to ensure a compatible firmware is uploaded to the nRF Desktop device, that is software that can support multiple bootloaders. The device is queried for information about bootloader using the Configuration channel. If the device does not provide information about the bootloader type, such information can optionally be provided inside the nordic-hid.quirk file (see the NordicHidBootloader option under Adding a new device).

fwupd can fail the image update in the following cases:

  • When the bootloader information stored in an updated image does not match the type reported by the device.

  • When there is no information about the bootloader used on the device.

For more information about building the fwupd tool locally, see the LVFS building fwupd site.

Dependencies

This application uses the following nRF Connect SDK libraries and drivers:

Application internal modules

The nRF Desktop application uses its own set of internal modules. See Module and component overview for more information. More information about each application module and its configuration details is available on the subpages.

Each module documentation page has a table that shows the relations between module events. Module event tables for some modules include extensive lists of source and sink modules. These are valid for events that have many listeners or sources, and are gathered on the Source and sink module lists subpage.

Application configuration options

Following are the application specific configuration options that can be configured for the nRF desktop and the internal modules:

CONFIG_DESKTOP_ROLE_HID_PERIPHERAL

(bool) HID peripheral

The option enables support for the nRF Desktop HID peripheral role. The peripheral uses HID state module to generate HID reports based on user input. All of the generated HID reports must be supported by the peripheral.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_ROLE_HID_DONGLE

(bool) HID dongle

The option enables support for the nRF Desktop HID dongle role. The dongle forwards HID reports from the HID peripherals to the host connected over USB. The dongle does not generate HID reports by itself.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_HID_DONGLE_BOND_COUNT

(int) Supported number of HID peripherals

Supported number of HID peripherals bonded to the dongle. By default dongle supports two HID peripherals - mouse and keyboard.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_HID_DONGLE_CONN_COUNT

(int) Supported number of simultaneously connected HID peripherals

Supported number of HID peripherals simultaneously connected to the dongle. By default dongle can handle up to two HID peripherals at the same time - mouse and keyboard.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_HID_DONGLE_ENABLED_REPORTS

(bool)

The dongle must support all of the forwarded HID reports.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_PERIPHERAL_TYPE_MOUSE

(bool) Mouse

The option by default enables support for HID mouse report.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_PERIPHERAL_TYPE_KEYBOARD

(bool) Keyboard

The option by default enables support for HID keyboard reports, HID system control report and HID consumer control report.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_PERIPHERAL_TYPE_OTHER

(bool) Other

The option does not enable support for any of the HID reports. The used HID reports must be explicitly specified.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_USE_DEFAULT_REPORT_DESCR

(bool) Use default HID report descriptor

By default, nRF Desktop uses predefined HID report descriptor shared among all of the devices. Disable this option to provide custom HID report descriptor.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_HID_REPORT_DESC

(string)

None

CONFIG_DESKTOP_HID_REPORT_MOUSE_SUPPORT

(bool) HID mouse report support

The option enables support for HID mouse input report.

If default HID report descriptor is used, the HID mouse report with predefined format is automatically added to the HID report descriptor. Otherwise, make sure to add the HID mouse report to the used report descriptor.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_HID_REPORT_KEYBOARD_SUPPORT

(bool) HID keyboard reports support

The option enables support for HID keyboard input report and HID keyboard LEDs output report.

If default HID report descriptor is used, the HID keyboard reports with predefined formats are automatically added to the HID report descriptor. Otherwise, make sure to add the HID keyboard reports to the used report descriptor.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_HID_REPORT_SYSTEM_CTRL_SUPPORT

(bool) HID system control report support

The option enables support for HID system control input report.

If default HID report descriptor is used, the HID system control report with predefined format is automatically added to the HID report descriptor. Otherwise, make sure to add the HID system control report to the used report descriptor.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_HID_REPORT_CONSUMER_CTRL_SUPPORT

(bool) HID consumer control report support

The option enables support for HID consumer control input report.

If default HID report descriptor is used, the HID consumer control report with predefined format is automatically added to the HID report descriptor. Otherwise, make sure to add the HID consumer control report to the used report descriptor.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_HID_BOOT_INTERFACE_DISABLED

(bool) None

None

CONFIG_DESKTOP_HID_BOOT_INTERFACE_MOUSE

(bool) Mouse

None

CONFIG_DESKTOP_HID_BOOT_INTERFACE_KEYBOARD

(bool) Keyboard

None

CONFIG_DESKTOP_DEVICE_PRODUCT

(string) Product name

Product name used for both GATT Device Information Service and USB device. By default, name is determined by nRF Desktop device role and nRF Desktop peripheral type.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_DEVICE_MANUFACTURER

(string) Manufacturer

Device manufacturer used for both GATT Device Information Service and USB device. By default, device manufacturer is set to Nordic Semiconductor ASA.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_DEVICE_VID

(hex) Vendor ID

Device Vendor ID used for GATT Device Information Service, USB device and configuration channel. By default, Vendor ID of Nordic Semiconductor ASA is used.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_DEVICE_PID

(hex) Product ID

Device Product ID used for GATT Device Information Service, USB device and configuration channel. Product ID is used to distinguish products made by the given vendor. Value must be configured in the application configuration.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_DEVICE_GENERATION

(string) Device generation

The Kconfig option is used to specify device generation. The option allows to distinguish configurations that use the same board and bootloader, but are not interoperable.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_BT

(bool) Support for Bluetooth connectivity

Enable support for Bluetooth connectivity in the nRF Desktop application. Specific Bluetooth configurations and application modules are selected according to the HID device role. Apart from that, the defaults of Bluetooth-related Kconfigs are aligned with the nRF Desktop use case.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_BT_PERIPHERAL

(bool)

HID peripherals are configured to use the GAP Peripheral role as required in the HID over GATT profile specification for the HID Device. This specification defines how to implement the HID Device using Bluetooth connectivity.

The nRF Desktop peripheral enables CAF Bluetooth LE advertising module, Bluetooth LE latency module and GATT Services required for a HID Device (HID Service, Battery Service and Device Information Service).

Additionally, the nRF Desktop peripheral enables device description module. The module implements a custom GATT Service which is required to connect with nRF Desktop dongles.

CONFIG_BT_ID_UNPAIR_MATCHING_BONDS

(unknown)

Delete bond with the same peer on another Bluetooth local identity when bonding to prevent bonding failures. That improves user experience during the erase advertising procedure.

By default, overwriting bond requires authenticated pairing.

Enabling this option is needed to pass the Fast Pair Validator’s end-to-end integration tests.

CONFIG_BT_ID_ALLOW_UNAUTH_OVERWRITE

(unknown)

Allow overwriting of an unauthenticated bond from a different local identity. This setting improves the user experience as it is no longer required to delete the bonding information from the old identity to pair using the new one.

CONFIG_BT_DATA_LEN_UPDATE

(unknown)

nRF Desktop peripherals disable the Data Length Exchange (DLE) procedure as it expects this procedure to be initiated by the the central.

CONFIG_BT_AUTO_PHY_UPDATE

(unknown)

nRF Desktop peripherals disable the automatic PHY Update procedure as it expects this procedure to be initiated by the central.

CONFIG_BT_PERIPHERAL_PREF_MIN_INT

(unknown)

nRF Desktop peripherals use the shortest available connection interval to lower the latency of HID reports.

CONFIG_BT_PERIPHERAL_PREF_MAX_INT

(unknown)

nRF Desktop peripherals use the shortest available connection interval to lower the latency of HID reports.

CONFIG_BT_PERIPHERAL_PREF_LATENCY

(unknown)

nRF Desktop peripherals use the non-zero value for the Bluetooth latency to lower the battery energy consumption. HID reports are sent as GATT notifications, so this parameter has no impact on their latency.

CONFIG_BT_PERIPHERAL_PREF_TIMEOUT

(unknown)

nRF Desktop peripherals use the moderate value for the supervision timeout parameter as they do not have to be fast in the disconnect detection. The moderate value also provides connection stability as both devices take more time before reporting the connection timeout.

CONFIG_BT_CONN_PARAM_UPDATE_TIMEOUT

(unknown)

nRF Desktop peripherals update connection parameters earlier to lower HID data latency.

CONFIG_BT_GATT_CHRC_POOL_SIZE

(unknown)

The maximum number of GATT characteristic descriptors in GATT pool is set assuming that nRF Desktop peripheral uses default configuration specified for the selected peripheral type.

By default, the GATT pool is used only by GATT HID Service. Make sure to update the pool size if your configuration uses more descriptors.

CONFIG_BT_GATT_UUID16_POOL_SIZE

(unknown)

The maximum number of GATT 16-bit UUID descriptors in GATT pool is set assuming that nRF Desktop peripheral uses default configuration specified for the selected peripheral type.

By default, the GATT pool is used only by GATT HID Service. Make sure to update the pool size if your configuration uses more descriptors.

CONFIG_BT_DIS_MANUF

(unknown)

nRF Desktop defines common HID device identification values and passes them as defaults to the Bluetooth DIS configuration.

CONFIG_BT_DIS_MODEL

(unknown)

nRF Desktop defines common HID device identification values and passes them as defaults to the Bluetooth DIS configuration.

CONFIG_BT_DIS_PNP

(unknown)

The PnP ID characteristic is required for a HID Device.

CONFIG_BT_DIS_PNP_VID_SRC

(unknown)

By default, nRF Desktop relies on Vendor ID of Nordic Semiconductor ASA assigned by the USB IF.

CONFIG_BT_DIS_PNP_VID

(unknown)

nRF Desktop defines common HID device identification values and passes them as defaults to the Bluetooth DIS configuration.

CONFIG_BT_DIS_PNP_PID

(unknown)

nRF Desktop defines common HID device identification values and passes them as defaults to the Bluetooth DIS configuration.

CONFIG_BT_DIS_PNP_VER

(unknown)

nRF Desktop by default defines product version representing major version number of 1, minor version number of 0 and sub-minor version number of 0.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_BT_CENTRAL

(bool)

nRF Desktop dongles are configured to use the GAP Central role as required in the HID over GATT profile specification for the Report and Boot Host. This specification defines how to implement the Host using Bluetooth connectivity.

Application modules that control Bluetooth LE scanning, discovery and connection parameters are automatically enabled.

CONFIG_BT_GATT_CLIENT

(unknown)

nRF Desktop dongles are configured to use the GATT Client role as required in the HID over GATT profile specification for the Report and Boot Host.

CONFIG_BT_GATT_SERVICE_CHANGED

(unknown)

GATT Service Changed support is not needed for nRF Desktop dongles. The dongles do not change their GATT Services, they work mainly as GATT Clients and receive HID reports from BLE connected peripherals.

CONFIG_BT_MAX_CONN

(unknown)

Change the default value for the maximum number of simultaneous connections to be compatible with the dongle connection count.

CONFIG_BT_MAX_PAIRED

(unknown)

Change the default value for the maximum number of paired devices to be compatible with the dongle bond count.

CONFIG_BT_CTLR_CONN_PARAM_REQ

(unknown)

nRF Desktop devices disable support for the Connection Parameter Request feature as it is not needed.

CONFIG_BT_DEVICE_NAME

(unknown)

By default, nRF Desktop devices use their product name as Bluetooth device name.

CONFIG_BT_DEVICE_APPEARANCE

(unknown)

By default, nRF Desktop mice use Bluetooth appearance of mouse, nRF Desktop keyboards and dongles use Bluetooth appearance of keyboard. Other nRF Desktop devices use Bluetooth appearance of generic human interface device.

CONFIG_BT_SETTINGS_CCC_STORE_ON_WRITE

(unknown)

nRF Desktop devices require to store the CCC descriptor in the context of the GATT write operation. This behaviour prevents discrepancies in the CCC descriptor configuration between the connected peers in case of a sudden shutdown or reset.

CONFIG_BT_SETTINGS_CCC_LAZY_LOADING

(unknown)

nRF Desktop devices disable the lazy loading feature for the CCC descriptor to speed up reconnections and reduce delay for the first HID report.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_LOG

(bool) nRF Desktop logging

The option enables support for the nRF Desktop Logging. By default, the nRF Desktop Logging uses the RTT backend and slightly modifies the default configuration of the Logging subsystem to tailor it to the application needs.

CONFIG_LOG

(unknown)

nRF Desktop Logging configuration enables the Logging subsystem that is required for this functionality.

CONFIG_LOG_MODE_OVERFLOW

(unknown)

nRF Desktop Logging configuration drops the oldest logs if there is no more space left in the buffers.

CONFIG_LOG_PRINTK

(unknown)

nRF Desktop Logging configuration enables the processing of printk messages by the Logging subsystem.

CONFIG_LOG_BUFFER_SIZE

(unknown)

nRF Desktop Logging configuration increases the default buffer size in the Logging subsystem to prevent logs from dropping.

CONFIG_LOG_PROCESS_THREAD_STACK_SIZE

(unknown)

nRF Desktop Logging configuration increases the default stack size for the log processing thread to prevent stack overflows.

CONFIG_LOG_BACKEND_RTT

(unknown)

nRF Desktop Logging configuration uses the RTT Logging backend as nRF Desktop targets use RTT for debug information. This option needs to be disabled when both the Logging and the Shell subsystems are active as the Shell backend is responsible for collecting logs in that case.

CONFIG_LOG_BACKEND_SHOW_COLOR

(unknown)

nRF Desktop Logging configuration disables colors in the Logging subsystem backends.

CONFIG_LOG_BACKEND_FORMAT_TIMESTAMP

(unknown)

nRF Desktop Logging configuration disables formatting of timestamps in the Logging subsystem backends.

CONFIG_LOG_BACKEND_RTT_MESSAGE_SIZE

(unknown)

nRF Desktop Logging configuration increases the default maximum message size for the RTT backend in the Logging subsystem to enhance its capacity.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_SHELL

(bool) nRF Desktop shell

The option enables support for the nRF Desktop Shell. By default, the nRF Desktop Shell uses the RTT backend and slightly modifies the default configuration of the Shell subsystem to tailor it to the application needs.

CONFIG_SHELL

(unknown)

nRF Desktop Shell configuration enables the Shell subsystem that is required for this functionality.

CONFIG_SHELL_BACKEND_SERIAL

(unknown)

nRF Desktop Shell configuration disables the Shell Serial backend as nRF Desktop targets do not use a Serial interface for debug information.

CONFIG_SHELL_BACKEND_RTT

(unknown)

nRF Desktop Shell configuration enables the Shell RTT backend as nRF Desktop targets use RTT for debug information.

CONFIG_SHELL_PROMPT_RTT

(unknown)

nRF Desktop Shell configuration sets a custom prompt.

CONFIG_DEVICE_SHELL

(unknown)

nRF Desktop Shell configuration enables access to basic device data.

CONFIG_KERNEL_SHELL

(unknown)

nRF Desktop Shell configuration enables access to basic kernel data.

CONFIG_INIT_STACKS

(unknown)

nRF Desktop Shell configuration enables stack area initialization with a fixed value to easily calculate stack usage.

CONFIG_THREAD_MONITOR

(unknown)

nRF Desktop Shell configuration enables the monitoring option to inspect all running threads in runtime.

CONFIG_THREAD_NAME

(unknown)

nRF Desktop Shell configuration enables an option to set a name for a thread.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_RTT

(bool) Enable RTT backend for logs or shell

The option enables support for SEGGER J-Link RTT in the nRF Desktop.

Disable the option only if you would like to use other backend for nRF Desktop logs or shell.

CONFIG_SEGGER_RTT_BUFFER_SIZE_UP

(unknown)

nRF Desktop RTT configuration increases the default buffer size in the SEGGER J-Link RTT libraries to enhance logging capacity.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_INIT_LOG_BATTERY_STATE_EVENT

(bool) Log battery state events

Log battery state events in nRF Desktop application.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_INIT_LOG_BATTERY_LEVEL_EVENT

(bool) Log battery level events

Log battery level events in nRF Desktop application.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_INIT_LOG_BLE_DISC_COMPLETE_EVENT

(bool) Log Bluetooth LE discovery complete events

Log Bluetooth LE discovery complete events in nRF Desktop application.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_INIT_LOG_BLE_QOS_EVENT

(bool) Log Bluetooth LE QoS events

Log Bluetooth LE QoS events in nRF Desktop application.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_INIT_LOG_BLE_DONGLE_PEER_EVENT

(bool) Log Bluetooth dongle peer event

Log Bluetooth dongle peer event in nRF Desktop application.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_INIT_LOG_CPU_LOAD_EVENT

(bool) Log CPU load events

Log CPU load events in nRF Desktop application.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_INIT_LOG_SELECTOR_EVENT

(bool) Log selector events

Log selector events in nRF Desktop application.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_INIT_LOG_PASSKEY_EVENT

(bool) Log passkey events

Log passkey events in nRF Desktop application.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_INIT_LOG_CONFIG_EVENT

(bool) Log config events

Log config events in nRF Desktop application.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_INIT_LOG_HID_SUBSCRIBER_EVENT

(bool) Log HID report subscriber events

Log HID report subscriber events in nRF Desktop application.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_INIT_LOG_HID_SUBSCRIPTION_EVENT

(bool) Log HID report subscription events

Log HID report subscription events in nRF Desktop application.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_INIT_LOG_HID_REPORT_EVENT

(bool) Log HID report events

Log HID report events in nRF Desktop application.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_INIT_LOG_HID_REPORT_SENT_EVENT

(bool) Log HID report sent events

Log HID report sent events in nRF Desktop application.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_INIT_LOG_MOTION_EVENT

(bool) Log motion events

Log motion events in nRF Desktop application.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_INIT_LOG_USB_STATE_EVENT

(bool) Log USB state events

Log USB state events in nRF Desktop application.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_INIT_LOG_WHEEL_EVENT

(bool) Log wheel events

Log wheel events in nRF Desktop application.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_INIT_LOG_HID_NOTIFICATION_EVENT

(bool) Log HID notification events

Log HID notification events in nRF Desktop application.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_BOARD_PM_EVENTS

(bool) Power management events support

React on power management events in board module.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_MOTION_NONE

(bool) Disable motion

If selected, no motion source if defined for the interface.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_MOTION_SENSOR_PMW3360_ENABLE

(bool) Motion from optical sensor PMW3360

If selected, movement data it obtained from PMW3360 optical sensor.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_MOTION_SENSOR_PAW3212_ENABLE

(bool) Motion from optical sensor PAW3212

If selected, movement data it obtained from PAW3212 optical sensor.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_MOTION_BUTTONS_ENABLE

(bool) Motion from buttons

If selected, movement data it obtained from buttons.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_MOTION_SIMULATED_ENABLE

(bool) Simulated motion

If selected, movement data is simulated.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_MOTION_SENSOR_ENABLE

(bool)

None

CONFIG_DESKTOP_MOTION_SENSOR_TYPE

(string)

None

CONFIG_DESKTOP_MOTION_BUTTONS_UP_KEY_ID

(int) Up key ID

ID of key use for generating up motion.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_MOTION_BUTTONS_DOWN_KEY_ID

(int) Down key ID

ID of key use for generating down motion.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_MOTION_BUTTONS_LEFT_KEY_ID

(int) Left key ID

ID of key use for generating left motion.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_MOTION_BUTTONS_RIGHT_KEY_ID

(int) Right key ID

ID of key use for generating right motion.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_MOTION_BUTTONS_MOTION_PER_SEC

(int) Motion generated per second during a button press

None

CONFIG_DESKTOP_MOTION_SIMULATED_EDGE_TIME

(int) Time for transition between two points in a trajectory [us]

The simulated movement data will be tracing predefined path, an eight-sided polygon. Must be power of two (calculations speedup). The resolution may be limited by the precision of the system’s hardware clock.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_MOTION_SIMULATED_SCALE_FACTOR

(int) Scale factor for given shape

The simulated movement data will be tracing predefined path, an eight-sided polygon. This option defines scale factor for tracked polygon size.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_MOTION_SENSOR_THREAD_STACK_SIZE

(int) Motion module thread stack size

Stack size for motion sensor thread.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_MOTION_SENSOR_EMPTY_SAMPLES_COUNT

(int) Empty sample count before fetching is stopped

Number of sensor readouts with no movement reported after which module will switch from actively fetching samples to waiting for an interrupt from the sensor.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_MOTION_SENSOR_CPI

(int) Motion sensor default CPI

Default CPI value.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_MOTION_SENSOR_SLEEP1_TIMEOUT_MS

(int) Motion sensor default sleep 1 timeout in ms

Time in milliseconds after last motion detection in which sensor enters a low power mode 1.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_MOTION_SENSOR_SLEEP2_TIMEOUT_MS

(int) Motion sensor default sleep 2 timeout in ms

Time in milliseconds after last motion detection in which sensor enters a low power mode 2.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_MOTION_SENSOR_SLEEP3_TIMEOUT_MS

(int) Motion sensor default sleep 3 timeout in ms

Time in milliseconds after last motion detection in which sensor enters a low power mode 3.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_MOTION_SENSOR_SLEEP1_SAMPLE_TIME_DEFAULT

(int) Motion sensor default sleep1 sample time

None

CONFIG_DESKTOP_MOTION_SENSOR_SLEEP2_SAMPLE_TIME_DEFAULT

(int) Motion sensor default sleep2 sample time

None

CONFIG_DESKTOP_MOTION_SENSOR_SLEEP3_SAMPLE_TIME_DEFAULT

(int) Motion sensor default sleep3 sample time

None

CONFIG_DESKTOP_MOTION_SENSOR_SLEEP3_SAMPLE_TIME_CONNECTED

(int) Motion sensor sleep3 sample time when connected

None

CONFIG_DESKTOP_MOTION_SENSOR_SLEEP_DISABLE_ON_USB

(bool) Disable low power modes if powered from USB

Low power modes reduce device power consumption, but increase response time.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_MOTION_PM_EVENTS

(bool) Power management events support

React on power management events in motion module.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_BUTTONS_SIM_ENABLE

(bool) Enable simulated button presses generator

This option enables simulated button presses in nRF Desktop application. Could be used for debugging purposes.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_BUTTONS_SIM_INTERVAL

(int) Interval between subsequent simulated button presses [ms]

Time interval between the subsequent simulated button presses [ms].

CONFIG_DESKTOP_BUTTONS_SIM_LOOP_FOREVER

(bool) Generate buttons in infinite loop

When this option is disabled sequence of buttons is generated once. Enabling this option makes the sequence start from the beginning after it ends.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_BUTTONS_SIM_TRIGGER_KEY_ID

(hex) Button used to start/stop generating button presses

This option defines KEY ID of the button used to start/stop generation of simulated button presses in the nRF Desktop application.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_SELECTOR_HW_ENABLE

(bool) Enable HW based selector

This option enables hardware based selector for nRF Desktop application. If selector state changes, selector_event is sent.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_WHEEL_ENABLE

(bool) Enable wheel hardware interface

This option enables wheel hardware interface for nRF Desktop application. Wheel hardware interface is responsible for generating events related to rotation of the mouse wheel.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_WHEEL_SENSOR_VALUE_DIVIDER

(int) Wheel sensor value divider

A value obtained from the wheel sensor will be divided by provided argument before being processed further.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_WHEEL_SENSOR_IDLE_TIMEOUT

(int) Wheel sensor idle timeout

Time in seconds before sensor goes to idle state. If set to zero sensor is always active.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_WHEEL_INVERT_AXIS

(bool) Invert wheel axis

Switch the orientation of the wheel sensor.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_BATTERY_CHARGER_NONE

(bool) No battery charging

If selected, battery charging is disabled.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_BATTERY_CHARGER_DISCRETE

(bool) Discrete battery charger

If selected, battery charging is enabled.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_BATTERY_MEAS_NONE

(bool) No battery measurement

If selected, battery measurement is disabled.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_BATTERY_MEAS

(bool) Enable battery measurement circuit

If selected, battery measurement is enabled.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_BATTERY_MEAS_MIN_LEVEL

(int) Minimum battery voltage [mV] that corresponds to 0% level

This option specifies battery voltage [mV] that corresponds to 0% battery level.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_BATTERY_MEAS_MAX_LEVEL

(int) Maximum battery voltage [mV] that corresponds to 100% level

This option specifies battery voltage [mV] that corresponds to 100% battery level.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_BATTERY_MEAS_HAS_VOLTAGE_DIVIDER

(bool) Use voltage divider for battery measurement

Enable if voltage divider is used for battery measurement.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_BATTERY_MEAS_VOLTAGE_DIVIDER_UPPER

(int) Upper resistor in battery measurement voltage divider [kOhm]

Upper resistor value [kOhm]. Output voltage is measured on the lower resistor.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_BATTERY_MEAS_VOLTAGE_DIVIDER_LOWER

(int) Lower resistor in battery measurement voltage divider [kOhm]

Lower resistor value [kOhm]. Output voltage is measured on the lower resistor.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_VOLTAGE_TO_SOC_DELTA

(int) Difference between adjacent elements in conversion LUT [mV]

Value used to convert battery voltage [mV] to State of Charge [%].

CONFIG_DESKTOP_BATTERY_MEAS_POLL_INTERVAL_MS

(int) Time between the subsequent battery measurements [ms]

Time interval between the subsequent battery measurements [ms].

CONFIG_DESKTOP_BATTERY_MEAS_HAS_ENABLE_PIN

(bool) Use pin for enabling battery measurement

Enable if dedicated gpio0 pin is used for enabling battery measurement circuit. Pin number is configurable by CONFIG_DESKTOP_BATTERY_MEAS_ENABLE_PIN

CONFIG_DESKTOP_BATTERY_MEAS_ENABLE_PIN

(int) Battery monitoring enable pin

A pin which enables the battery measurement circuit.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_PASSKEY_NONE

(bool) Disable passkey

If selected, passkey is disabled.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_PASSKEY_BUTTONS

(bool) Passkey based on button presses

If selected, the passkey module is used to handle numeric passkey input. The input handling is based on button presses.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_PASSKEY_MAX_LEN

(int) Max number of digits in passkey

Maximum number of digits in a passkey.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_BLE_STATE

(bool) Bluetooth LE state module (CAF)

nRF Desktop uses Bluetooth LE state module from Common Application Framework (CAF).

CONFIG_DESKTOP_BLE_ADV

(bool) Bluetooth LE advertising module (CAF)

nRF Desktop uses Bluetooth LE advertising module from Common Application Framework (CAF).

By default, nRF Desktop application does not use direct advertising, but uses fast advertising and enables filter accept list.

CONFIG_CAF_BLE_ADV_POWER_DOWN_ON_DISCONNECTION_REASON_0X15

(unknown)

nRF Desktop peripherals power down and suspend Bluetooth advertising when bonded peer disconnects with reason 0x15 (Remote Device Terminated due to Power Off) to avoid waking up the HID host until user input is detected.

CONFIG_CAF_BLE_ADV_DIRECT_ADV

(unknown)

By default, nRF Desktop peripherals do not use direct advertising.

CONFIG_CAF_BLE_ADV_FAST_ADV

(unknown)

By default, nRF Desktop peripherals use fast advertising.

CONFIG_CAF_BLE_ADV_FILTER_ACCEPT_LIST

(unknown)

By default, nRF Desktop peripherals enable filter accept list.

CONFIG_BT_ADV_PROV_FLAGS

(unknown)

None

CONFIG_BT_ADV_PROV_GAP_APPEARANCE

(unknown)

None

CONFIG_BT_ADV_PROV_DEVICE_NAME

(unknown)

None

CONFIG_BT_ADV_PROV_DEVICE_NAME_PAIRING_MODE_ONLY

(unknown)

nRF Desktop provides device name also outside of pairing mode. This is done for backwards compatibility.

CONFIG_BT_ADV_PROV_SWIFT_PAIR

(unknown)

None

CONFIG_BT_ADV_PROV_FAST_PAIR

(unknown)

None

CONFIG_BT_ADV_PROV_FAST_PAIR_SHOW_UI_PAIRING

(unknown)

nRF Desktop peripheral supports one bond per local identity. Disable the UI indication during Fast Pair not discoverable advertising to prevent bonding failures.

CONFIG_BT_ADV_PROV_TX_POWER

(unknown)

None

CONFIG_DESKTOP_ADV_PROV_UUID16_ALL

(bool)

None

CONFIG_DESKTOP_POWER_MANAGER

(bool) Power manager module (CAF)

nRF Desktop uses power manager module from Common Application Framework (CAF).

By default, the nRF Desktop dongle stays on and remains idle instead of switching SoC to OFF mode after the power manager timeout.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_SETTINGS_LOADER

(bool) Settings loader module (CAF)

nRF Desktop uses settings loader module from Common Application Framework (CAF).

By default, nRF Desktop application uses non-volatile storage backend and the settings partition is located in internal FLASH.

CONFIG_NVS_LOG_LEVEL

(unknown)

The nRF Desktop shows only warning and error logs related to the NVS. This is done to avoid flooding logs.

CONFIG_SETTINGS_DYNAMIC_HANDLERS

(unknown)

The nRF Desktop does not use dynamic settings handlers. Disable the functionality by default to save memory.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_HID_STATE_ENABLE

(bool) Enable HID state

The module generates HID reports based on user input.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_HID_STATE_HID_KEYMAP_DEF_PATH

(string) File defining HID keymap

Location of configuration file that holds information about mapping between buttons and generated reports.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_HID_STATE_HID_KEYBOARD_LEDS_DEF_PATH

(string) File defining HID keyboard LEDs

Location of configuration file that holds information about LEDs associated with HID keyboard LEDs report.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_HID_STATE_SUBSCRIBER_COUNT

(int) Number of supported subscribers

The data structures representing subscribers are statically allocated. The number of allocated structures (specified by this Kconfig option) must be greater than or equal to the maximum number of simultaneously active subscribers.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_HID_STATE_PM_ENABLE

(bool) Enable HID power manager integration

This enables small module that blocks power down if HID is active.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_HID_REPORT_EXPIRATION

(int) HID report expiration [ms]

Define the time after which a HID report expires and is not sent again.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_HID_EVENT_QUEUE_SIZE

(int) HID event queue size

Size of the HID event queue.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_LED_STATE_DEF_PATH

(string) File defining used LED effects

Location of configuration file that holds information about the used LED effects.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_LED_STREAM_ENABLE

(bool) Enable LED stream

Enable RGB LED effect streaming.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_LED_STREAM_QUEUE_SIZE

(int) Stream led event queue size

Size of the LED stream event queue.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_USB_ENABLE

(bool) Enable USB module

Enables USB module. The module allows to transfer HID reports over USB.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_USB_REMOTE_WAKEUP

(bool) Enable USB remote wakeup

Enable USB remote wakeup functionality. The USB wakeup request is triggered on wake_up_event.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_USB_SUBSCRIBER_REPORT_PRIORITY

(int) USB HID reports subscriber priority

USB reports subscriber priority. The lower value means the lower priority in subscribtion to HID reports. By default, the USB uses the highest possible priority.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_USB_SELECTIVE_REPORT_SUBSCRIPTION

(bool) Subscribe only for predefined subset of HID reports

By default, every USB HID instance subscribes for all the HID reports. Enable this option to specify a subset of HID reports for every USB HID instance. The subset of HID reports must be specified in usb_state_def.h file in application configuration directory for given board and configuration.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_USB_PM_ENABLE

(bool) Enable USB power manager integration

This enables small module that blocks power down if the USB is active.

CONFIG_USB_HID_POLL_INTERVAL_MS

(unknown)

Use small USB HID Device polling interval to ensure low latency.

CONFIG_USB_HID_DEVICE_COUNT

(unknown)

By default, dongle uses a dedicated USB HID instance to forward data from given peripheral to the host. On memory-limited dongles, a single USB HID instance can be used to forward HID reports from all of the connected peripherals.

By default, peripheral uses a single USB HID instance to send all of the HID reports.

CONFIG_USB_HID_BOOT_PROTOCOL

(unknown)

None

CONFIG_DESKTOP_USB_HID_PROTOCOL_CODE

(int)

None

CONFIG_USB_DEVICE_MANUFACTURER

(unknown)

nRF Desktop defines common HID device identification values and passes them as defaults to the USB subsystem configuration.

CONFIG_USB_DEVICE_PRODUCT

(unknown)

nRF Desktop defines common HID device identification values and passes them as defaults to the USB subsystem configuration.

CONFIG_USB_DEVICE_VID

(unknown)

nRF Desktop defines common HID device identification values and passes them as defaults to the USB subsystem configuration.

CONFIG_USB_DEVICE_PID

(unknown)

nRF Desktop defines common HID device identification values and passes them as defaults to the USB subsystem configuration.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_BLE_BOND_ENABLE

(bool) BLE bond module

Enable app-specific implementation of Bluetooth LE bond module. The module is used to control Bluetooth peers.

The module selects the CAF_BLE_BOND_SUPPORTED option to inform CAF that BLE bond module is supported by the application.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_BLE_USE_DEFAULT_ID

(bool) Use default Bluetooth local identity

Bluetooth default local identity is used as ID 0. This identity cannot be reset. After bond for the default identity is removed, it is no longer used.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_BLE_PEER_CONTROL

(bool) Enable interaction with peer configuration

Let user control Bluetooth peers by pressing a dedicated button.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_BLE_PEER_CONTROL_BUTTON

(hex) Key ID of button used to control peers

Button which should be used to control bonded Bluetooth peers.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_BLE_PEER_SELECT

(bool) Enable switching between peers

Short click to switch peer. Double click to accept choice.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_BLE_NEW_PEER_SCAN_REQUEST

(bool) Enable scanning on request

Short click to start new peer scanning. When enabled the device will look for non-bonded devices only when requested. When disabled the device always search for non-bonded devices while scanning. Regardless of the choice made the device scans periodically for already bonded peers.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_BLE_PEER_ERASE

(bool) Enable peer erase

Long click to start erase. Double click to confirm.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_BLE_PEER_ERASE_ON_START

(bool) Enable peer erase (on system start)

Hold dedicated button during system start to start erase advertising.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_BLE_DONGLE_PEER_ENABLE

(bool) Enable dongle peer

Enable additional peer to connect with dongle.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_BLE_DONGLE_PEER_SELECTOR_ID

(int) Dongle peer selector ID

ID of the hardware selector used to select the dongle peer.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_BLE_DONGLE_PEER_SELECTOR_POS

(int) Dongle peer selector position

If the selector is set to this position, the dongle peer is selected. If the selector is set to any other position, other Bluetooth LE peers are selected.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_BLE_DONGLE_PEER_ERASE_BOND_BUTTON

(bool) Allow erasing dongle peer using button

None

CONFIG_DESKTOP_BLE_DONGLE_PEER_ERASE_BOND_CONF_CHANNEL

(bool) Allow erasing dongle peer using config channel

None

CONFIG_DESKTOP_BLE_DONGLE_PEER_ID_INFO

(bool) Enable the Dongle Peer ID information event

This option enables the event that broadcasts information about the dongle peer application identity. The Bluetooth LE bond module submits the event during initialization.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_BLE_CONN_PARAMS_ENABLE

(bool) BLE connection parameters module

The module updates the Bluetooth connection parameters after the peripheral discovery, handles connection parameter update requests from the connected peripherals and increases connection interval for peripherals while USB is suspended to reduce power consumption.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_BLE_USB_MANAGED_CI

(bool) Manage connection intervals on the USB state change

Manage BLE connection intervals depending on the USB state. Allows reduced power consumption of the USB dongle device by setting a larger connection intervals while the USB enters suspended state. After the USB resumes normal operation, connection interval is set to the previous value.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_BLE_USB_MANAGED_CI_VALUE

(int) BLE connection interval when USB is suspended

Connection interval used for all connected peers while the USB is in suspended state.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_BLE_LATENCY_ENABLE

(bool) BLE latency module

Enable BLE latency module that controls Bluetooth LE connection latency. The module lowers the connection latency when configuration channel is in use or when firmware update is received by SMP (low latency ensures quick data exchange).

The module also keeps the connection latency low for LLPM connections to improve performance and disconnects Bluetooth peer if connection has not been secured in the predefined amount of time after the connection occurred.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_BLE_SECURITY_FAIL_TIMEOUT_S

(int) Security fail timeout [s]

After this time peripheral device disconnects if security is not established.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_BLE_LOW_LATENCY_LOCK

(bool) Keep the slave latency low for LLPM connections

When this option is selected, the slave latency is kept low for the LLPM connection unless device is in low power mode. This speeds up sending the first HID report after not sending a report for some connection intervals. Enabling this option increases the power consumption of the device.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_BLE_LATENCY_PM_EVENTS

(bool) Power management events support

React on power management events in BLE latency module.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_BLE_ENABLE_PASSKEY

(bool) Bluetooth LE passkey module

Enable passkey based pairing for increased security.

The feature should not be used together with Fast Pair, because Fast Pair currently does not support devices that use screen or keyboard for Bluetooth authentication.

CONFIG_BT_SMP_ENFORCE_MITM

(unknown)

Disable to allow bonding with the nRF Desktop dongle that has no MITM capabilities.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_BLE_DISCOVERY_ENABLE

(bool) Bluetooth LE discovery module

Enable device to read device description (custom GATT Service), Device Information Service and discover HIDS.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_BLE_SCAN_ENABLE

(bool) Bluetooth LE scan module

Enable device to scan for peripheral devices.

CONFIG_BT_SCAN_NAME_CNT

(unknown)

The nRF Desktop by default uses two name filters. The peripheral device may advertise either as mouse or as keyboard.

CONFIG_BT_SCAN_ADDRESS_CNT

(unknown)

The nRF Desktop needs an address filter per every bonded peripheral.

CONFIG_BT_SCAN_CONN_ATTEMPTS_FILTER

(unknown)

The connection attempts filter is enabled by default to limit number of attempts to connect to the device.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_BLE_SCAN_START_TIMEOUT_S

(int) Scan start timeout [s]

After disabled, scanning is re-enabled after defined time of connected peripherals inactivity (scanning has negative impact on user experience - e.g. may cause mouse pointer lags).

CONFIG_DESKTOP_BLE_SCAN_DURATION_S

(int) Scan duration [s]

After this time scan is disabled if any peripheral is connected.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_BLE_FORCED_SCAN_DURATION_S

(int) Forced scan duration [s]

Duration of the forced scan operation in seconds. The module enters a forced scan state right after boot or wakeup, on successful peripheral discovery, on peripheral disconnection, on connection failure, on bond erase and on scan request.

Setting forced scan duration to 0 disables the feature.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_BLE_SCAN_MOUSE_LIMIT

(int) Maximum number of bonded mice

None

CONFIG_DESKTOP_BLE_SCAN_KEYBOARD_LIMIT

(int) Maximum number of bonded keyboards

None

CONFIG_DESKTOP_BLE_NEW_PEER_SCAN_ON_BOOT

(bool) Look for peers after boot

When enabled the device will look for new peers also after it was booted.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_BLE_SCAN_PM_EVENTS

(bool) Stop and block scanning in the power down mode

Stop and block scanning for peers if the central switched to the power down mode to reduce power consumption.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_BLE_QOS_ENABLE

(bool) Bluetooth LE QoS module

Enable device to avoid congested RF channels.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_BLE_QOS_INTERVAL

(int) Processing interval for QoS thread [ms]

Configure processing interval for QoS algorithm. Longer intervals means more time to accumulate CRC stats, and vice versa.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_BLE_QOS_STACK_SIZE

(int) Base stack size for QoS thread

Configure base stack size for QoS processing thread.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_BLE_QOS_STATS_PRINTOUT_ENABLE

(bool) Enable BLE QoS statistics printout

Enable to get real-time QoS information printouts via CDC ACM.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_BLE_QOS_STATS_PRINT_STACK_SIZE

(int) Stack size addition for QoS printout

This size increase is added to the QoS base stack size to facilitate statistics printout.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_DEV_DESCR_ENABLE

(bool) Device description module

The device description module defines custom GATT Service, which contains information about whether the peripheral supports the Low Latency Packet Mode (LLPM) and Hardware ID (HW ID) of the peripheral.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_DFU_MCUMGR_ENABLE

(bool) Enable DFU using MCUmgr [EXPERIMENTAL]

This option enables an alternative method of performing DFU using the MCUmgr module.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_DFU_MCUMGR_MCUBOOT_DIRECT_XIP

(bool) Device uses MCUboot bootloader in direct-xip mode

The option informs the MCUmgr DFU module that the MCUboot bootloader supports direct-xip mode. In this mode, the image is booted directly from the secondary slot instead of moving it to the primary slot. The module by default assumes that MCUboot with direct-xip is used when direct-xip variant image is built.

The MCUmgr DFU module assumes that MCUboot direct-xip bootloader simply boots the image with a higher version. The module does not confirm the newly updated image after a successful boot.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_FACTORY_RESET

(bool) Factory reset module

The module allows to trigger factory reset using configuration channel set operation. The factory reset clears the stored Fast Pair data, removes Bluetooth bonds and resets all of the Bluetooth local identities (apart from the default one that cannot be reset). The factory reset is performed using nRF Connect SDK Fast Pair API.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_FAST_PAIR

(bool) Fast Pair module

Enable a small application module that control Fast Pair show/hide UI indication during Fast Pair not discoverable advertising.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_FAST_PAIR_LIMIT_NORMAL_PAIRING

(bool) Allow normal Bluetooth pairing only in pairing mode

Register Bluetooth authentication callbacks and reject normal Bluetooth pairing when outside of pairing mode (if the used Bluetooth local identity already has a bonded peer).

CONFIG_DESKTOP_FAST_PAIR_MAX_LOCAL_ID_BONDS

(int)

None

CONFIG_DESKTOP_SWIFT_PAIR

(bool) Swift Pair module

Enable a small application module that controls enabling or disabling Swift Pair advertising payload.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_SWIFT_PAIR_ADV_DONGLE_PEER

(bool) Enable Swift Pair advertising payload for dongle peer

Enable Swift Pair advertising payload for the dongle peer.

In configurations that support Fast Pair, the dongle peer is used to connect with all of the Bluetooth Centrals that are not Fast Pair Seekers. The general Bluetooth peer is intended to be used with Fast Pair Seekers.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_SWIFT_PAIR_ADV_GENERAL_PEER

(bool) Enable Swift Pair advertising payload for general Bluetooth peers

Enable Swift Pair advertising payload for general Bluetooth peers.

In configurations that do not support Fast Pair, the dongle peer is used only for connection with nRF Desktop dongle. The general Bluetooth peers are used to connect with other Bluetooth Centrals.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_HIDS_ENABLE

(bool) Enable GATT HID Service

This option enables HID over GATT Service application module.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_HIDS_FIRST_REPORT_DELAY

(int) First HID report delay [ms]

If set to non-zero, the peripheral will delay sending first HID report after the connection security was established. This is done to ensure that central will be ready to receive the data. nRF Desktop centrals reenable the subscriptions on every reconnection. HID report is dropped if received before the subscription was reenabled.

By default, nRF Desktop keyboard uses a delay of 500 ms to prevent dropping HID reports right after reconnection.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_HIDS_SUBSCRIBER_PRIORITY

(int) HID service reports subscriber priority

HID Service over GATT reports subscriber priority. The lower value means the lower priority in subscribtion to HID reports. By default, the HID service uses the lowest possible priority.

CONFIG_BT_HIDS_ATTR_MAX

(unknown)

The maximum number of GATT attribute descriptors for HIDS is set assuming that nRF Desktop peripheral supports all of the HID input and output reports defined in default configuration for the selected peripheral type, boot protocol and HID feature report used by the configuration channel.

Make sure to update the value if you enable additional HID reports.

CONFIG_BT_HIDS_INPUT_REP_MAX

(unknown)

nRF Desktop mouse by default uses only HID mouse input report. nRF Desktop keyboard by default uses HID keyboard, system control and consumer control input reports.

Make sure to update the value if you enable an additional HID input report.

CONFIG_BT_HIDS_OUTPUT_REP_MAX

(unknown)

nRF Desktop Bluetooth peripheral by default uses HID output reports for configuration channel and keyboard LEDs.

CONFIG_BT_HIDS_FEATURE_REP_MAX

(unknown)

nRF Desktop Bluetooth peripheral by default uses HID feature report only for the configuration channel.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_HID_FORWARD_ENABLE

(bool) Enable HID forward

This option enables HID over GATT Client. The reports received from the BLE are forwarded to the USB.

CONFIG_BT_HOGP_REPORTS_MAX

(unknown)

By default, nRF Desktop dongle supports up to 12 HID reports to allow for connecting two peripherals with up to 6 HID reports each on average.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_HID_FORWARD_MAX_ENQUEUED_REPORTS

(int) Enqueued reports limit

A single instance of HID-class USB device can forward one report at a time. If busy the incoming report will be enqueued.

The limit is defined separately for every HID input report type of a given Bluetooth peripheral.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_BAS_ENABLE

(bool) Enable GATT Battery Service

This option enables GATT Battery Service application module.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_QOS_ENABLE

(bool) QoS service

This option enables QoS service.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_CONFIG_CHANNEL_ENABLE

(bool) Enable user configuration channel

Enables user to change firmware parameters at runtime over the configuration channel.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_CONFIG_CHANNEL_OUT_REPORT

(bool) Enable additional HID output report

Use additional HID output report for configuration channel data transfer. The HID output report is used only by nRF Desktop dongle, other hosts use the HID feature report.

For HID output reports, the dongle can use write without response. In that case LLPM peripheral does not have to respond instead of providing HID notification during one connection event.

Using HID output report prevents report rate drops when forwarding configuration channel data, but it increases memory consumption of the peripheral.

The config channel HID output report is handled in a dedicated way. It does not use the same infrastructure as other HID output reports.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_CONFIG_CHANNEL_TIMEOUT

(int) Transaction timeout on configuration channel in seconds

Timeout [s] after which config channel transaction is dropped.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_CONFIG_CHANNEL_DFU_ENABLE

(bool) DFU over the config channel

This option enables DFU over the config channel. The option automatically enables 8-bit write block size emulation to ensure that update images with size unaligned to word size can be handled while writing to SoC FLASH.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_CONFIG_CHANNEL_DFU_SYNC_BUFFER_SIZE

(int) Size (in words) of sync buffer

Number of words DFU data synchronization buffer will use. The new image data is first transmitted to this RAM located buffer. When host performs progress synchronization the data is moved from RAM to flash. The host must perform progress synchronization at least every synchronization buffer bytes count.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_CONFIG_CHANNEL_DFU_MCUBOOT_DIRECT_XIP

(bool) Device uses MCUboot bootloader in direct-xip mode

The option informs the DFU module that the MCUboot bootloader supports direct-xip mode. In this mode, the image is booted directly from the secondary slot instead of moving it to the primary slot. The module by default assumes that MCUboot with direct-xip is used when direct-xip variant image is built.

The DFU module assumes that MCUboot direct-xip bootloader simply boots the image with a higher version. The module does not mark the newly uploaded image as pending nor confirm it after a successful boot.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_CONFIG_CHANNEL_DFU_VID

(hex) Configuration channel Vendor ID

Configuration channel allows devices to report their Vendor ID. The Vendor ID is reported together with Product ID and device generation.

The information is useful if nRF Desktop peripheral is connected through nRF Desktop dongle and host computer has no direct access to the VID and PID.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_CONFIG_CHANNEL_DFU_PID

(hex) Configuration channel Product ID

Configuration channel allows devices to report their Product ID. The Product ID is reported together with Vendor ID and device generation.

The information is useful if nRF Desktop peripheral is connected through nRF Desktop dongle and host computer has no direct access to the VID and PID.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_CONFIG_CHANNEL_DFU_GENERATION

(string) Device generation

Configuration channel allows devices to report their generation. The generation is reported together with Vendor ID and Product ID.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_FN_KEYS_ENABLE

(bool) Enable function keys support

Button remapper adds fn bit to all key ids while fn key is pressed.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_FN_KEYS_SWITCH

(hex) Fn button

Define button used as a function key.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_FN_KEYS_LOCK

(hex) Fn lock button

Define button used as a function key lock.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_STORE_FN_LOCK

(bool) Store Fn lock state

Define if device should store Fn lock state after reboot.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_FN_KEYS_MAX_ACTIVE

(int) Max Fn key pressed

Maximum number of function keys pressed at the same time.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_WATCHDOG_ENABLE

(bool) Enable watchdog support

Enable watchdog to reset the device in case of problems.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_WATCHDOG_TIMEOUT

(int) Watchdog timeout value [ms]

Timeout of watchdog timer. After the time elapse a device will be restarted.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_HFCLK_LOCK_ENABLE

(bool) Keep HF clock enabled

Keeping the HF clock enabled is needed to reduce the latency before the first packet (in a row) is transmitted over the BLE. If disabled a startup delay of around 1.5 ms will be added to overall latency of the first packet. If enabled current consumption is increased.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_CONSTLAT_ENABLE

(bool) Constant latency interrupts

When enabled SoC will use configuration for constant latency interrupts. This reduces interrupt propagation time but increases power consumption.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_CONSTLAT_DISABLE_ON_STANDBY

(bool) Disable constant latency interrupts on standby

When enabled constant latency interrupts will be disabled when the devices switches to standby.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_FAILSAFE_ENABLE

(bool) Enable failsafe

When a device is rebooted by watchdog or due to the CPU lockup, the settings partition will be erased. This is to prevent the broken settings from permanently rendering the device unusable.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_CPU_MEAS_ENABLE

(bool) Enable measuring CPU load

The CPU load is sent periodically using dedicated application event.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_CPU_MEAS_PERIOD

(int) Time between subsequent CPU load events [ms]

The CPU load event is submitted periodically by a delayed work. When the event is submitted, application module resets measurement. According to CPU load subsystem documentation, measurement must be reset at least every 4294 seconds. Otherwise results are invalid.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_NRF_PROFILER_SYNC_GPIO_ENABLE

(bool) Enable nrf_profiler sync based on GPIO

This option can be used to synchronize timestamps for nrf_profiler events on two devices.

When this option is enabled nRF Desktop devices generate nrf_profiler event (sync_event) that is used for synchronization. Central generates square wave using GPIO, peripheral reacts on the edges. Make sure that selected pins of the central and the peripheral are connected together.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_NRF_PROFILER_SYNC_CENTRAL

(bool) Central

This is the default option, the device is central.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_NRF_PROFILER_SYNC_PERIPHERAL

(bool) Peripheral

If selected, the device is peripheral.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_NRF_PROFILER_SYNC_GPIO_PORT

(int) Sync GPIO port

This option defines which GPIO port is to be used to generate/receive synchronization signal. The signal is used to synchronize timestamps between two different devices.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_NRF_PROFILER_SYNC_GPIO_PIN

(int) Sync GPIO pin

This option defines which GPIO pin is to be used to generate/receive synchronization signal. The signal is used to synchronize timestamps between two different devices.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_HWID

(bool) Hardware ID module

Enable nRF Desktop hardware ID utility. The hardware ID is obtained from Zephyr hwinfo driver.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_DFU_LOCK

(bool) DFU lock module

Enable nRF Desktop DFU lock module for synchronizing multiple DFU methods.

The module is automatically enabled when the Config Channel DFU and the MCUmgr DFU are both enabled.

CONFIG_DESKTOP_COMMON

(bool)

None

CONFIG_DESKTOP_COMMON_MODULES

(bool)

None

API documentation

Following are the API elements used by the application.

HID reports

Header file: applications/nrf_desktop/configuration/common/hid_report_desc.h
Source file: applications/nrf_desktop/configuration/common/hid_report_desc.c
group nrf_desktop_hid_reports

HID Reports.

Enums

enum report_id

Identification numbers of HID reports.

Values:

enumerator REPORT_ID_RESERVED

Reserved.

enumerator REPORT_ID_MOUSE

Mouse input report.

enumerator REPORT_ID_KEYBOARD_KEYS

Keyboard input report.

enumerator REPORT_ID_SYSTEM_CTRL

System control input report.

enumerator REPORT_ID_CONSUMER_CTRL

Consumer control input report.

enumerator REPORT_ID_KEYBOARD_LEDS

Keyboard output report.

enumerator REPORT_ID_USER_CONFIG

Config channel feature report.

enumerator REPORT_ID_USER_CONFIG_OUT

Config channel output report.

enumerator REPORT_ID_VENDOR_IN

Reserved.

enumerator REPORT_ID_VENDOR_OUT

Reserved.

enumerator REPORT_ID_BOOT_MOUSE

Boot report - mouse.

enumerator REPORT_ID_BOOT_KEYBOARD

Boot report - keyboard.

enumerator REPORT_ID_COUNT

Number of reports.

Variables

static const uint8_t input_reports[] = {REPORT_ID_MOUSE, REPORT_ID_KEYBOARD_KEYS, REPORT_ID_SYSTEM_CTRL, REPORT_ID_CONSUMER_CTRL, REPORT_ID_BOOT_MOUSE, REPORT_ID_BOOT_KEYBOARD,}

Input reports map.

static const uint8_t output_reports[] = {REPORT_ID_KEYBOARD_LEDS,}

Output reports map.

const uint8_t hid_report_desc[]
const size_t hid_report_desc_size

LED states

Header file: applications/nrf_desktop/configuration/common/led_state.h
Source file: applications/nrf_desktop/src/modules/led_state.c
group nrf_desktop_led_state

LED State.

Defines

LED_UNAVAILABLE
LED_PEER_COUNT

Enums

enum led_system_state

System states represented by LED.

Values:

enumerator LED_SYSTEM_STATE_IDLE

Device is idle.

enumerator LED_SYSTEM_STATE_CHARGING

Device is charging.

enumerator LED_SYSTEM_STATE_ERROR

Device in error state.

enumerator LED_SYSTEM_STATE_COUNT

Number of system states.

enum led_peer_state

Peer states represented by LED.

Values:

enumerator LED_PEER_STATE_DISCONNECTED

Peer is disconnected.

enumerator LED_PEER_STATE_CONNECTED

Peer is connected.

Device searches for peer.

enumerator LED_PEER_STATE_CONFIRM_SELECT

Device waits for user to confirm peer switch.

enumerator LED_PEER_STATE_CONFIRM_ERASE

Device waits for user to confirm bond erase.

enumerator LED_PEER_STATE_ERASE_ADV

Device searches for new peer before bond erase.

enumerator LED_PEER_STATE_COUNT

Number of peer states.

enum led_id_nrf_desktop

LED identification.

Values:

enumerator LED_ID_SYSTEM_STATE

LED representing system state.

enumerator LED_ID_PEER_STATE

LED representing peer state.

enumerator LED_ID_COUNT

Number of LEDs.

USB events

Header file: applications/nrf_desktop/src/events/usb_event.h
Source file: applications/nrf_desktop/src/modules/usb_state.c
group nrf_desktop_usb_event

USB Event.

File defines a set of events used to transmit the information about USB state between the application modules.

Enums

enum usb_state

Peer states.

Values:

enumerator USB_STATE_DISCONNECTED

Cable is not attached.

enumerator USB_STATE_POWERED

Cable attached but no communication.

enumerator USB_STATE_ACTIVE

Cable attached and data is exchanged.

enumerator USB_STATE_SUSPENDED

Cable attached but port is suspended.

enumerator USB_STATE_COUNT

Number of states.

struct usb_state_event
#include <usb_event.h>

USB state event.

Public Members

struct app_event_header header

Event header.

enum usb_state state

State of the USB module.