CAF: Bluetooth LE state module

The Bluetooth® LE state module is a core Bluetooth module in Common Application Framework (CAF). When enabled for an application, the Bluetooth LE state module is responsible for the following actions:

The Bluetooth LE state module does not handle Bluetooth advertising or scanning. If you want to use these functionalities to connect over Bluetooth LE, use CAF’s Bluetooth LE advertising module or Zephyr’s Bluetooth API directly.


CAF assumes that Bluetooth Peripheral device supports only one simultaneous connection.


To use the module, you must enable the following Kconfig options:

The following Kconfig options are also available for this module:

  • CONFIG_CAF_BLE_STATE_EXCHANGE_MTU - This option can be used for GATT client (CONFIG_BT_GATT_CLIENT) to set the Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) to the maximum possible size that the buffers can hold. This option is enabled by default.

  • CONFIG_CAF_BLE_USE_LLPM - This option enables the Low Latency Packet Mode (LLPM). This option is enabled by default and depends on CONFIG_BT_CTLR_SDC_LLPM and CONFIG_BT_LL_SOFTDEVICE.

  • CONFIG_CAF_BLE_STATE_SECURITY_REQ - This option enables setting the security level 2 for a Bluetooth LE connection automatically, right after the connection is established. The security level 2 or higher enables connection encryption. The device disconnects if establishing the connection security level 2 fails.

  • CONFIG_CAF_BLE_STATE_MAX_LOCAL_ID_BONDS - This option allows to specify the maximum number of allowed bonds per Bluetooth local identity for a Bluetooth Peripheral (CONFIG_BT_PERIPHERAL). If a local identity is already bonded with the maximum number of allowed bonds, new peers are disconnected right after Bluetooth connection is established.

Implementation details

The Bluetooth LE state module is used by both Bluetooth Peripheral and Bluetooth Central devices.

In line with other CAF modules, the Bluetooth LE state module uses Application Event Manager events to broadcast changes in connection state and parameters. It also updates connection reference counts to ensure the connections remain valid as long as application modules use them.

Connection state change

The module propagates information about the connection state changes using ble_peer_event. In this event, is a pointer to the connection object and ble_peer_event.state is the connection state.

Bluetooth connection state handling in CAF

Bluetooth connection state handling in CAF

The connection state can be set to one of the following values:

Other application modules can call bt_conn_disconnect() to disconnect the remote peer. The application module can submit a ble_peer_event with ble_peer_event.state set to PEER_STATE_DISCONNECTING to let other application modules prepare for the disconnection.

Connection parameter change

The module submits a ble_peer_conn_params_event to inform other application modules about connection parameter update requests and connection parameter updates.

The Bluetooth LE state module rejects the connection parameter update request in Zephyr’s callback. An application module can handle the ble_peer_conn_params_event and update the connection parameters.

Connection references

The Bluetooth LE state module keeps references to bt_conn objects to ensure that they remain valid when other application modules access them. When a new connection is established, the module calls bt_conn_ref() to increase the object reference counter. After ble_peer_event about disconnection or connection failure is received by all other application modules, the Bluetooth LE state module decrements the bt_conn object by using bt_conn_unref().